Epstein Barr virus is not a characteristic feature in the central nervous system in established multiple sclerosis

1 Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Brain (Impact Factor: 9.2). 11/2009; 133(Pt 5):e137. DOI: 10.1093/brain/awp296
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Available from: Ute-Christiane Meier,
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    • "Although the EBER in situ hybridization as well as the immunocytochemistry for EBV in principle works in both types of tissue sections, higher sensitivity results may be reached in frozen sections, but possibly at the expense of a higher chance of non-specific reactions. Yet, it is unlikely that this explains the divergent results, since in the studies by Willis et al. (2009) and Peferoen et al. (2010), tissue material from cases with multiple sclerosis that were rated positive in the study by Serafini et al. (2007), were obtained from the UK Multiple Sclerosis Tissue Bank under identical conditions of tissue preservation. Thus, issues related to the specificity of the in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical reactions have to be considered, which are of particular relevance when dealing with plasma cells, with their very high cytoplasmic content of RNA and immunoglobulin. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent epidemiological and immunological studies provide evidence for an association between Epstein–Barr virus infection and multiple sclerosis, suggesting a role of Epstein–Barr virus infection in disease induction and pathogenesis. A key question in this context is whether Epstein–Barr virus-infected B lymphocytes are present within the central nervous system and the lesions of patients with multiple sclerosis. Previous studies on this topic provided highly controversial results, showing Epstein–Barr virus reactivity in B cells in the vast majority of multiple sclerosis cases and lesions, or only exceptional Epstein–Barr virus-positive B cells in rare cases. In an attempt to explain the reasons for these divergent results, a workshop was organized under the umbrella of the European Union FP6 NeuroproMiSe project, the outcome of which is presented here. This report summarizes the current knowledge of Epstein–Barr virus biology and shows that Epstein–Barr virus infection is highly complex. There are still major controversies, how to unequivocally identify Epstein–Barr virus infection in pathological tissues, particularly in situations other than Epstein–Barr virus-driven lymphomas or acute Epstein–Barr virus infections. It further highlights that unequivocal proof of Epstein–Barr virus infection in multiple sclerosis lesions is still lacking, due to issues related to the sensitivity and specificity of the detection methods. Abbreviations: EBV = Epstein–Barr virus; EBNA1 = Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen-1
    Brain 08/2011; 134(9):2772-86. DOI:10.1093/brain/awr197 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    • "Precise characterization of inflammatory infiltrates and lesion type in multiple sclerosis brain samples is, however, necessary for correct interpretation of immunohistochemical data. For example, absence of immunoreactivity for Epstein–Barr virus lytic proteins in most multiple sclerosis brain samples analysed by Peferoen et al. (2010) could be due to the fact that these do not contain ectopic follicles and acute lesions, the sites where we have found evidence of Epstein–Barr virus reactivation (Serafini et al., 2007). "
    Brain 12/2010; 133(Pt 12):e157. DOI:10.1093/brain/awq223 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    • "According to these hypotheses Lünemann et al. (2008) found that EBNA1-specific CD4 + T cells from MS patients cross-react with myelin antigens while Serafini et al. (2007) showed that EBV infection was prominent in a large percentage of MS CNS B cells in N95% of MS cases. Conversely, other authors found that EBV infection is rare in MS brain tissue and is unlikely to contribute directly to the pathogenesis (Willis et al., 2009; Peferoen et al., 2009; Sargsyan et al., 2010). Also data about increased serum and intrathecal antibody production against EBV as compared to other neurotropic viruses are not conclusive (Zivadinov et al., 2009; Farrell et al., 2009; Cepok et al, 2005; Brettschneider et al., 2009; Pohl et al., 2010) although within the CNS, only a small proportion of local synthesis of IgG is directed against EBV (Pohl et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody levels are present in serum of Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients but literature lacks of studies comparing anti-EBV antibody levels between MS and other neurological diseases. We evaluate anti-VCA IgG and IgM, anti-EBNA1 IgG, anti-Cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM titres in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 267 MS, 50 Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and 88 Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients. We found increased titres of anti-EBV-IgG in serum and CSF of MS subjects as compared to CIDP and ALS patients thus providing additional evidence for a possible involvement of EBV in MS.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 08/2010; 225(1-2):149-52. DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2010.04.007 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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