Value of stress myocardial perfusion scanning in diagnosis of severe coronary artery disease in liver transplantation candidates.
ABSTRACT The significant potential for perioperative and late cardiovascular complications makes careful preoperative cardiac risk assessment imperative in liver transplantation candidates.
To determine the sensitivity and specificity of myocardial perfusion scanning for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) in liver transplantation candidates.
We prospectively evaluated 93 liver transplantation candidates. Patients with known CAD were excluded. All patients, regardless of symptoms and risk factors, underwent myocardial perfusion scanning and coronary angiography.
Results of myocardial perfusion scanning were abnormal in 64 patients (68.8%) and normal in 29 patients (31.2%). Of patients with abnormal scans, only 6 (9.4%) had severe CAD at coronary angiography. None of the 29 patients with normal perfusion scans and the 24 patients with fixed defects had severe CAD; however, 6 of 40 patients (15.0%) with reversible perfusion defects had severe CAD at coronary angiography (P = .005). Alcoholic liver disease, reversible perfusion defects at myocardial perfusion scanning, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly associated with CAD. Defining reversible perfusion defects as a sign of ischemia, and fixed defects and normal perfusion as nonischemic, myocardial perfusion scanning had 100% sensitivity but 61% specificity for severe CAD. The test's accuracy was low (38%).
The results of reversible perfusion defects on myocardial perfusion scanning were sensitive but not specific for CAD in liver transplantation candidates. The high number of false-positive results decreased the test's accuracy.
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ABSTRACT: Thirty-two patients with coronary artery disease who underwent liver transplantation between 1990 and 1994 were identified. Coronary artery disease was managed medically (n = 9), by angioplasty (n = 1), or surgically (n = 22) prior to liver transplantation. Two patients underwent simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting and liver transplantation. Complete preoperative cardiac evalution was performed in all patients. Perioperative and postoperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality were retrospectively determined. Overall mortality was 50%, whereas morbidity was 81% Follow-up was between 1 and 3 years after liver transplantation. Subgroup analysis revealed that medically managed patients had a 56% mortality and a 100% morbidity. The patient who underwent angioplasty survived without morbidity. One patient who underwent simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting and liver transplantation died intraoperatively. The second patient survived but required pacemaker insertion and inotropic agents postoperatively. The 20 patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafting had a 50% mortality and 80% morbidity. Further, analysis by United Network for Organ Sharing functional status revealed a higher than expected mortality in all groups. The morbidity and mortality associated with liver transplantation is significantly increased in patients with coronary artery disease and is equally high in medically and surgically treated patients. By comparison, patients without coronary artery disease have a 3-year survival of 55.4% (status I) to 79.7% (status III and IV). The increased intraoperative and postoperative risk in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing liver transplantation should be considered when determining the candidacy of these patients, as well as when providing informed consent. Copyright © 1996 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.Liver Transplantation 12/2005; 2(6):426 - 430. · 3.94 Impact Factor
- The American Journal of Cardiology 03/2002; 89(3):359-60. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Orthotopic liver transplantation is an established therapy for end-stage liver disease. This study evaluated the range of cardiovascular abnormalities in patients undergoing evaluation for orthotopic liver transplantation and determined the prognostic implications of abnormal echocardiographic features, including ischemia during dobutamine stress echocardiography, in predicting postoperative cardiac events. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed in 190 patients for assessment of left ventricular function, valvular pathology, and pulmonary hypertension. Dobutamine stress echocardiography was performed in 165 patients for evaluation of inducible ischemia. Contrast echocardiography for detection of intrapulmonary shunting was performed in 125 patients at rest and in 99 during dobutamine stress. Left ventricular dysfunction, significant valvular regurgitation, and inducible ischemia were identified in <1O% of patients. Pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and > or = moderate intrapulmonary shunting were present in 12%, 16%, and 26% of patients, respectively. Severe intrapulmonary shunting predicted death prior to transplantation (P=0.01). Of the 71 transplanted patients, major perioperative events included global left ventricular dysfunction in four patients and myocardial infarction in one patient with normal coronary arteries. No preoperative echocardiographic parameters, including ischemia on dobutamine echocardiography, predicted these perioperative events. No cardiac events related to obstructive coronary artery disease occurred in the 154 patients without ischemia on dobutamine stress echocardiography. The majority of patients with end-stage liver disease, including those with alcoholic cirrhosis, have normal cardiac function on two-dimensional echocardiography. Severe intrapulmonary shunting portends a poor prognosis in patients awaiting transplantation. A negative dobutamine stress echocardiogram appears useful in excluding patients at risk for perioperative cardiac events related to obstructive coronary artery disease.Transplantation 04/1996; 61(8):1180-8. · 3.78 Impact Factor