Regulation of meiotic recombination via Mek1-mediated Rad54 phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT A preference for homologs over sister chromatids in homologous recombination is a fundamental difference in meiotic versus mitotic cells. In budding yeast, the bias for interhomolog recombination in meiosis requires the Dmc1 recombinase and the meiosis-specific kinase Mek1, which suppresses engagement of sister chromatids by the mitotic recombinase Rad51. Here, a combination of proteomic, biochemical, and genetic approaches has identified an additional role for Mek1 in inhibiting the activity of the Rad51 recombinase through phosphorylation of its binding partner, Rad54. Rad54 phosphorylation of threonine 132 attenuates complex formation with Rad51, and a negative charge at this position reduces Rad51 function in vitro and in vivo. Thus, Mek1 phosphorylation provides a dynamic means of controlling recombination partner choice in meiosis in two ways: (1) it reduces Rad51 activity through inhibition of Rad51/Rad54 complex formation, and (2) it suppresses Rad51-mediated strand invasion of sister chromatids via a Rad54-independent mechanism.
Article: The single-end invasion: an asymmetric intermediate at the double-strand break to double-holliday junction transition of meiotic recombination.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We identify a novel meiotic recombination intermediate, the single-end invasion (SEI), which occurs during the transition from double-strand breaks (DSBs) to double-Holliday junction (dHJs). SEIs are products of strand exchange between one DSB end and its homolog. The structural asymmetry of SEIs indicates that the two ends of a DSB interact with the homolog in temporal succession, via structurally (and thus biochemically) distinct processes. SEIs arise surprisingly late in prophase, concomitant with synaptonemal complex (SC) formation. These and other data imply that SEIs are preceded by nascent DSB-partner intermediates, which then undergo selective differentiation into crossover and noncrossover types, with SC formation and strand exchange as downstream consequences. Late occurrence of strand exchange provides opportunity to reverse recombinational fate even after homologs are coaligned and/or synapsed. This feature can explain crossover suppression between homeologous and structurally heterozygous chromosomes.Cell 08/2001; 106(1):59-70. · 32.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During DNA double-strand-break (DSB) repair by recombination, the broken chromosome uses a homologous chromosome as a repair template. Early steps of recombination are well characterized: DSB ends assemble filaments of RecA-family proteins that catalyze homologous pairing and strand-invasion reactions. By contrast, the postinvasion steps of recombination are poorly characterized. Rad52 plays an essential role during early steps of recombination by mediating assembly of a RecA homolog, Rad51, into nucleoprotein filaments. The meiosis-specific RecA-homolog Dmc1 does not show this dependence, however. By exploiting the Rad52 independence of Dmc1, we reveal that Rad52 promotes postinvasion steps of both crossover and noncrossover pathways of meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This activity resides in the N-terminal region of Rad52, which can anneal complementary DNA strands, and is independent of its Rad51-assembly function. Our findings show that Rad52 functions in temporally and biochemically distinct reactions and suggest a general annealing mechanism for reuniting DSB ends during recombination.Molecular cell 03/2008; 29(4):517-24. · 14.61 Impact Factor
Article: A component of C. elegans meiotic chromosome axes at the interface of homolog alignment, synapsis, nuclear reorganization, and recombination.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A universal feature of meiotic prophase is the pairing of homologous chromosomes, a fundamental prerequisite for the successful completion of all subsequent meiotic events. HIM-3 is a Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis-specific non-cohesin component of chromosome axes that is required for synapsis. Our characterization of new him-3 alleles reveals previously unknown functions for the protein. HIM-3 is required for the establishment of initial contacts between homologs, for the nuclear reorganization characteristic of early meiotic prophase, and for the coordination of these events with synaptonemal complex (SC) assembly. Despite the absence of homolog alignment, we find that recombination is initiated efficiently, indicating that initial pairing is not a prerequisite for early steps of the recombination pathway. Surprisingly, RAD-51-marked recombination intermediates disappear with apparent wild-type kinetics in him-3 null mutants in which homologs are spatially unavailable for recombination, raising the possibility that HIM-3's presence at chromosome axes inhibits the use of sister chromatids as templates for repair. We propose that HIM-3 is a molecular link between multiple landmark events of meiotic prophase; it is critical for establishing chromosome identity by configuring homologs to facilitate their recognition while simultaneously imposing structural constraints that later promote the formation of the crossover essential for proper segregation.Current Biology 05/2004; 14(7):585-92. · 9.65 Impact Factor