Characterization of a major colon cancer susceptibility locus (Ccs3) on mouse chromosome 3
ABSTRACT Treatment of mice with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) induces a number of lesions in the colon, including hyperplastic lesions, as well adenomas and carcinomas in situ. Inbred strains of mice show different responses to AOM-induced carcinogenesis. A/J mice are highly susceptible and develop a greater number of hyperplastic lesions and tumors (15-70 tumors per mouse) than resistant C57BL/6J mice (0-6 tumors per mouse). Susceptibility to AOM-induced tumors segregates as a co-dominant trait in (A x B6)F1 hybrids. Using a set of 23 AcB and BcA recombinant congenic mouse strains derived from A/J (susceptible) and B6 (resistant) parents, we observed that the number of hyperplastic lesions and tumors induced by AOM was under different genetic controls in AcB/BcA strains. The multiplicity of AOM-induced tumors is controlled by a major locus that we have mapped on the distal portion of chromosome 3, to which we have given the temporary designation colon cancer susceptibility locus 3 (Ccs3). B6 and A/J alleles at Ccs3 are associated with resistance and susceptibility, respectively. Haplotype analysis in key informative AcB/BcA strains restricts the size of the Ccs3 locus to a 14 Mb segment that contains 94 annotated genes. The expression level of all these genes in normal colon has been established by transcript profiling with microarrays, and has led to the identification of a subset of positional candidates that are expressed at high levels in this tissue. The 4q and 1p human chromosomal segments sharing syntenic homology with the mouse Ccs3 segment are known to be associated with inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal tumors in humans, suggesting that the study of the mouse Ccs3 locus may help further the pathogenesis of these human conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Cancers arising in mucosal tissues account for a disproportionately large fraction of malignancies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) have an important function in the mucosal immune system that we have now shown extends to the induction of CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that FcRn within dendritic cells (DCs) was critical for homeostatic activation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells that drove protection against the development of colorectal cancers and lung metastases. FcRn-mediated tumor protection was driven by DCs activation of endogenous tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells via the cross-presentation of IgG complexed antigens (IgG IC), as well as the induction of cytotoxicity-promoting cytokine secretion, particularly interleukin-12, both of which were independently triggered by the FcRn-IgG IC interaction in murine and human DCs. FcRn thus has a primary role within mucosal tissues in activating local immune responses that are critical for priming efficient anti-tumor immunosurveillance.Immunity 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2013.11.003 · 19.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Caspases play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Active Caspase-6 (Casp6) is considered a novel therapeutic target against Alzheimer disease (AD) since it is present in AD pathological brain lesions, associated with age-dependent cognitive decline, and causes age-dependent cognitive impairment in the mouse brain. However, active Casp6 is highly expressed and activated in normal human colon epithelial cells raising concerns that inhibiting Casp6 in AD may promote colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, others have reported rare mutations of Casp6 in human colorectal cancers and an effect of Casp6 on apoptosis and metastasis of colon cancer cell lines. Here, we investigated the role of Casp6 in inflammation-associated azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) colon cancer in Casp6-overexpressing and -deficient mice. In wild-type mice, AOM/DSS-induced tumors had significantly higher Casp6 mRNA, protein and activity levels compared to normal adjacent colon tissues. Increased human Casp6 or absence of Casp6 expression in mice colon epithelial cells did not change colonic tumor multiplicity, burden or distribution. Nevertheless, the incidence of hyperplasia was slightly reduced in human Casp6-overexpressing colons and increased in Casp6 null colons. Overexpression of Casp6 did not affect the grade of the tumors while all tumors in heterozygous or homozygous Casp6 null colons were high grade compared to only 50% high grade in wild-type mice. Casp6 levels did not alter cellular proliferation and apoptosis. These results suggest that Casp6 is unlikely to be involved in colitis-associated tumors.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114270. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114270 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic predisposition controlled by susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributes to a large proportion of common cancers. Studies of genetics of cancer susceptibility, however, did not address systematically the relationship between susceptibility to cancers in different organs. We present five sets of data on genetic architecture of colon and lung cancer susceptibility in mice, humans and rats. They collectively show that the majority of genes for colon and lung cancer susceptibility are linked pair-wise and are likely identical or related. Four CcS/Dem recombinant congenic strains, each differing from strain BALB/cHeA by a different small random subset of ±12.5% of genes received from strain STS/A, suggestively show either extreme susceptibility or extreme resistance for both colon and lung tumors, which is unlikely if the two tumors were controlled by independent susceptibility genes. Indeed, susceptibility to lung cancer (Sluc) loci underlying the extreme susceptibility or resistance of such CcS/Dem strains, mapped in 226 (CcS-10×CcS-19)F2 mice, co-localize with susceptibility to colon cancer (Scc) loci. Analysis of additional Sluc loci that were mapped in OcB/Dem strains and Scc loci in CcS/Dem strains, respectively, shows their widespread pair-wise co-localization (P = 0.0036). Finally, the majority of published human and rat colon cancer susceptibility genes map to chromosomal regions homologous to mouse Sluc loci. 12/12 mouse Scc loci, 9/11 human and 5/7 rat colon cancer susceptibility loci are close to a Sluc locus or its homologous site, forming 21 clusters of lung and colon cancer susceptibility genes from one, two or three species. Our data shows that cancer susceptibility QTLs can have much broader biological effects than presently appreciated. It also demonstrates the power of mouse genetics to predict human susceptibility genes. Comparison of molecular mechanisms of susceptibility genes that are organ-specific and those with trans-organ effects can provide a new dimension in understanding individual cancer susceptibility.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2). · 3.53 Impact Factor