Treatment of mice with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) induces a number of lesions in the colon, including hyperplastic lesions, as well adenomas and carcinomas in situ. Inbred strains of mice show different responses to AOM-induced carcinogenesis. A/J mice are highly susceptible and develop a greater number of hyperplastic lesions and tumors (15-70 tumors per mouse) than resistant C57BL/6J mice (0-6 tumors per mouse). Susceptibility to AOM-induced tumors segregates as a co-dominant trait in (A x B6)F1 hybrids. Using a set of 23 AcB and BcA recombinant congenic mouse strains derived from A/J (susceptible) and B6 (resistant) parents, we observed that the number of hyperplastic lesions and tumors induced by AOM was under different genetic controls in AcB/BcA strains. The multiplicity of AOM-induced tumors is controlled by a major locus that we have mapped on the distal portion of chromosome 3, to which we have given the temporary designation colon cancer susceptibility locus 3 (Ccs3). B6 and A/J alleles at Ccs3 are associated with resistance and susceptibility, respectively. Haplotype analysis in key informative AcB/BcA strains restricts the size of the Ccs3 locus to a 14 Mb segment that contains 94 annotated genes. The expression level of all these genes in normal colon has been established by transcript profiling with microarrays, and has led to the identification of a subset of positional candidates that are expressed at high levels in this tissue. The 4q and 1p human chromosomal segments sharing syntenic homology with the mouse Ccs3 segment are known to be associated with inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal tumors in humans, suggesting that the study of the mouse Ccs3 locus may help further the pathogenesis of these human conditions.
"mice does not depend on a second genetic event. We next investigated the role of FcRn in the development of CRC induced by the chronic exposure of a chemical carcinogen, azoxymethane (AOM), which, upon repeated administration, drives the development of colorectal malignancies (Meunier et al., 2010). We observed that Fcgrt À/À mice subjected to a standard regimen of AOM administration developed significantly more abundant and larger tumors (Figures 1B and S1C) than did WT littermates. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancers arising in mucosal tissues account for a disproportionately large fraction of malignancies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) have an important function in the mucosal immune system that we have now shown extends to the induction of CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that FcRn within dendritic cells (DCs) was critical for homeostatic activation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells that drove protection against the development of colorectal cancers and lung metastases. FcRn-mediated tumor protection was driven by DCs activation of endogenous tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells via the cross-presentation of IgG complexed antigens (IgG IC), as well as the induction of cytotoxicity-promoting cytokine secretion, particularly interleukin-12, both of which were independently triggered by the FcRn-IgG IC interaction in murine and human DCs. FcRn thus has a primary role within mucosal tissues in activating local immune responses that are critical for priming efficient anti-tumor immunosurveillance.
"We used the mutagenic agent azoxymethane (AOM), which has been shown to induce colonic tumors in certain strains of mice , . C57BL/6 mice, the background strain for our TLR4 transgenic animals, are resistant to AOM-induced tumors , . Therefore, we asked whether AOM alone was sufficient to induce tumors in villin-TLR4 mice. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colonic bacteria have been implicated in the development of colon cancer. We have previously demonstrated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is over-expressed in humans with colitis-associated cancer. Genetic epidemiologic data support a role for TLR4 in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) as well, with over-expression favoring more aggressive disease. The goal of our study was to determine whether TLR4 played a role as a tumor promoter in sporadic colon cancer. Using immunofluorescence directed to TLR4, we found that a third of sporadic human colorectal cancers over-express this marker. To mechanistically investigate this observation, we used a mouse model that over-expresses TLR4 in the intestinal epithelium (villin-TLR4 mice). We found that these transgenic mice had increased epithelial proliferation as measured by BrdU labeling, longer colonic crypts and an expansion of Lgr5+ crypt cells at baseline. In addition, villin-TLR4 mice developed spontaneous duodenal dysplasia with age, a feature that is not seen in any wild-type (WT) mice. To model human sporadic CRC, we administered the genotoxic agent azoxymethane (AOM) to villin-TLR4 and WT mice. We found that villin-TLR4 mice showed an increased number of colonic tumors compared to WT mice as well as increased β-catenin activation in non-dysplastic areas. Biochemical studies in colonic epithelial cell lines revealed that TLR4 activates β-catenin in a PI3K-dependent manner, increasing phosphorylation of β-catenin(Ser552), a phenomenon associated with activation of the canonical Wnt pathway. Our results suggest that TLR4 can trigger a neoplastic program through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Our studies highlight a previously unexplored link between innate immune signaling and activation of oncogenic pathways, which may be targeted to prevent or treat CRC.
PLoS ONE 05/2013; 8(5):e63298. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063298 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The mechanism by which the detected CNV in intron 15 of Nfκb1 would be associated with differential activation and function of the Nfκb pathway in A vs. B6 primary cells remains unknown and awaits further study. However, we have observed that the A and B6 alleles at this CNV do not have a detectable effect on a) overall expression of Nfκb1 RNA in normal mucosa (microarray data), b) level of p105 or p50 proteins expressed by primary macrophages either constitutively or in response to LPS (Fig. 6), c) splicing of exons 14–16, as determined by exon chip analysis, and following re-construction of the two variants into appropriate expression constructs, transient transfection in HeLa cells, and analysis of spliced products by RT-PCR (data not shown). We have not yet tested the effect of the CNV alleles on other aspects of mRNA biology, including nuclear export and/or translatability in primary IEC. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ccs3 locus on mouse chromosome 3 regulates differential susceptibility of A/J (A, susceptible) and C57BL/6J (B6, resistant) mouse strains to chemically-induced colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we report the high-resolution positional mapping of the gene underlying the Ccs3 effect. Using phenotype/genotype correlation in a series of 33 AcB/BcA recombinant congenic mouse strains, as well as in groups of backcross populations bearing unique recombinant chromosomes for the interval, and in subcongenic strains, we have delineated the maximum size of the Ccs3 physical interval to a ∼2.15 Mb segment. This interval contains 12 annotated transcripts. Sequencing of positional candidates in A and B6 identified many either low-priority coding changes or non-protein coding variants. We found a unique copy number variant (CNV) in intron 15 of the Nfkb1 gene. The CNV consists of two copies of a 54 bp sequence immediately adjacent to the exon 15 splice site, while only one copy is found in CRC-susceptible A. The Nfkb1 protein (p105/p50) expression is much reduced in A tumors compared to normal A colonic epithelium as analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Studies in primary macrophages from A and B6 mice demonstrate a marked differential activation of the NfκB pathway by lipopolysaccharide (kinetics of stimulation and maximum levels of phosphorylated IκBα), with a more robust activation being associated with resistance to CRC. NfκB has been previously implicated in regulating homeostasis and inflammatory response in the intestinal mucosa. The interval contains another positional candidate Slc39a8 that is differentially expressed in A vs B6 colons, and that has recently been associated in CRC tumor aggressiveness in humans.
PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e58733. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0058733 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.