Cytogenetic analysis of two related Deltochilum (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) species: Diploid number reduction, extensive heterochromatin addition and differentiation
ABSTRACT Male mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of two species of the genus Deltochilum (Scarabaeidae) were analyzed through conventional staining, C-banding, base-specific fluorochromes, silver nitrate staining (AgNO(3)) and FISH (45S rDNA). The two species possessed karyotypes with 2n=14, neo-XY and meta-submetacentric chromosomes. The analysis of constitutive heterochromatin (CH) revealed mainly diphasic chromosomes in the two species, showing heterochromatic long arms. Silver nitrate staining labeled the blocks corresponding to CH in D. (Deltohyboma) aff morbillosum while in D. (Deltohyboma) calcaratum, AgNO(3) staining revealed only the CH blocks of the diphasic autosomes. The fluorochrome staining revealed in D. (D.) calcaratum the diphasic autosomes and the sex chromosomes with CMA(3)(+) blocks, and in D. (D.) aff morbillosum, the GC-rich sequences were restricted to the terminal regions of the long arms of the pairs 1 and 2 and the X. The FISH revealed 45S rDNA sites in two autosomic pairs and in the X chromosome. The analyses performed allowed for the identification of cytogenetic markers and the discussion of possible chromosome rearrangements that have been involved in the karyotypic differentiation of these species mainly related to the repetitive genome.
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ABSTRACT: The genus Phanaeus is included in the tribe Phanaeini, one of the most diverse tribes within the subfamily Scarabaeinae in terms of chromosomal characteristics. However, so far the species of this genus were not studied with differential cytogenetic techniques, limiting any inference of the probable mechanisms responsible for this diversity. In this work, several techniques were applied with the aim of cytogenetically characterizing two Phanaeus species. The karyotype found for Phanaeus (Notiophanaeus) chalcomelas was 2n = 12, neo-XY, and that of P. (N.) splendidulus was 2n = 20, Xyp, considered primitive for the family Scarabaeidae. The chromosomes of both species showed a high amount of constitutive heterochromatin (CH), with blocks rich in base pairs GC (CMA3 (+)). Moreover, in P. (N.) chalcomelas the marks revealed by C-banding and fluorochrome staining were different in size, showing CH variability. Sites of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were identified in one autosomal pair of P. (N.) chalcomelas and in five autosomal pairs of P. (N.) splendidulus. On the other hand, only one autosomal pair exhibited 5S rDNA sequences in these species. The results suggest that the karyotype differentiation of the Phanaeus species studied here involved pericentric inversions and centric fusions, as well as mechanisms related to amplification and dispersion of CH and rDNA sequences.Genetics and Molecular Biology 09/2013; 36(3):341-346. DOI:10.1590/S1415-47572013005000031 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We comparatively analyzed six Dichotomius species (Coleoptera: Scarabainae) through cytogenetic methods and mitochondrial genes sequencing in the aim to identify patterns of chromosomal evolution and heterochromatin differentiation in the group. The chromosomal data were accessed through the classical analysis of heterochromatin and mapping of high and moderately repeated DNAs (C (0) t-1 DNA fraction). Mitochondrial data were obtained from nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. The heterochromatin distribution was conserved but revealed variability in the base pair richness and repetitive DNA content, and an intense turnover of heterochromatic associated sequences seems to have occurred during Dichotomius speciation. Specifically for D. bos, an interesting pattern was observed, indicating apparently the presence of heterochromatic sequences composed of low copy-number sequences. Moreover, highly conserved terminal/sub-terminal sequences that could act as a telomeric or telomere-associated DNA were observed. The heterochromatin diversification patterns observed in Dichotomius were not accomplished by the diversification of the species studied, which may be a consequence of the intense dynamics that drive the evolution of repeated DNA clusters in the genome. Finally our findings also suggest that the use of C (0) t-1 DNA fraction represents a powerful, inexpensive and not time consuming tool to be applied in understanding heterochromatin and repetitive DNA organization.Genetica 03/2011; 139(3):315-25. DOI:10.1007/s10709-011-9551-7 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has allowed the generation of data concerning the genome structure and chromosomal organization and differentiation of diverse eukaryote organisms. This technique guided to a revolution in the cytogenetic and permitted a more clear visualization of specific DNA sequences onto chromosomes, thus generating detailed physical chromosome maps of species. For studies of genome organization and karyotype ongoing in animals, the most applied sequences are the repeated elements. These elements have been obtained from the genome of distinct species mainly through the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzymatic restriction, and have been used for chromosome identification, establishment of chromosomal rearrangements, studies of B and sex chromosomes origin and evolution, and genome organization. Here we summarize the recent advances in the application of the FISH technology in studies of fish and insect chromosomes, under the focus of understanding the organization and evolution of their karyotypes and genomes.