Cytogenetic analysis of two related Deltochilum (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) species: Diploid number reduction, extensive heterochromatin addition and differentiation.
ABSTRACT Male mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of two species of the genus Deltochilum (Scarabaeidae) were analyzed through conventional staining, C-banding, base-specific fluorochromes, silver nitrate staining (AgNO(3)) and FISH (45S rDNA). The two species possessed karyotypes with 2n=14, neo-XY and meta-submetacentric chromosomes. The analysis of constitutive heterochromatin (CH) revealed mainly diphasic chromosomes in the two species, showing heterochromatic long arms. Silver nitrate staining labeled the blocks corresponding to CH in D. (Deltohyboma) aff morbillosum while in D. (Deltohyboma) calcaratum, AgNO(3) staining revealed only the CH blocks of the diphasic autosomes. The fluorochrome staining revealed in D. (D.) calcaratum the diphasic autosomes and the sex chromosomes with CMA(3)(+) blocks, and in D. (D.) aff morbillosum, the GC-rich sequences were restricted to the terminal regions of the long arms of the pairs 1 and 2 and the X. The FISH revealed 45S rDNA sites in two autosomic pairs and in the X chromosome. The analyses performed allowed for the identification of cytogenetic markers and the discussion of possible chromosome rearrangements that have been involved in the karyotypic differentiation of these species mainly related to the repetitive genome.
- SourceAvailable from: Durdica Ugarković[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heterochromatic regions of the eukaryotic genome harbour DNA sequences that are repeated many times in tandem, collectively known as satellite DNAs. Different satellite sequences co-exist in the genome, thus forming a set called a satellite DNA library. Within a library, satellite DNAs represent independent evolutionary units. Their evolution can be explained as a result of change in two parameters: copy number and nucleotide sequence, both of them ruled by the same mechanisms of concerted evolution. Individual change in either of these two parameters as well as their simultaneous evolution can lead to the genesis of species-specific satellite profiles. In some cases, changes in satellite DNA profiles can be correlated with chromosomal evolution and could possibly influence the evolution of species.The EMBO Journal 12/2002; 21(22):5955-9. · 9.82 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of several populations of Eurysternus caribaeus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) were analysed through conventional staining, C-banding, base-specific fluorochromes, silver nitrate staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). All specimens showed 2n = 8 in their karyotypes, with a neo-XY sex system (Y is a submetacentric and X a metacentric) and three pairs of submetacentric autosomes. The analysis of constitutive heterochromatin (CH) revealed small blocks located in the centromeric region of all chromosomes which do not present positive staining under the fluorochromes CMA3 and DAPI. Silver nitrate staining revealed that the nucleolar organizer region (NORs) is associated with the sex chromosomes. The FISH technique revealed that rDNA sites in the X and Y are different in size. Data from different populations indicate that the diploid number reduction (2n = 8) observed in E. caribaeus is established and presumably has preceded the dispersion of this species. Moreover, this reduction occasioned the translocation of rDNA sites to the sex chromosomes, X and Y, an uncommon pattern in Scarabaeidae that was observed for the first time by the FISH in this work.Journal of Genetics 09/2009; 88(2):177-82. · 0.88 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Astyanax scabripinnis has been considered a species complex because it presents high karyotypic and morphological variability among its populations. In this work, individuals of two A. scabripinnis populations from different streams in the same hydrographic basin were analyzed through C-banding and AgNOR. Although they present distinct diploid numbers, they show meta and submetacentric chromosome groups highly conserved (numerically and morphologically). Other chromosomal characteristics are also shared by both populations, as the pattern of constitutive heterochromatin distribution (large blocks in the telomeric regions of subtelocentric and acrocentric chromosomes) and some nucleolar chromosomes. Inter-individual variations both in the number and size of heterochromatic blocks, and in the number and localization of NORs were verified in the studied populations, characterizing them as polymorphics for these regions. The mechanisms involved in the dispersion of heterochromatin and NORs through the karyotypes, as well as the possible events related to the generation of polymorphism of those regions are discussed. Furthermore, relationships between these populations and within the context of the scabripinnis complex are also approached.Genetica 02/2000; 109(3):161-8. · 1.68 Impact Factor