Can living in the surroundings of a petrochemical complex be a risk factor for autoimmune thyroid disease?
ABSTRACT Based on a suspicion raised by a health professional and due to a subsequent legal request, a cross-sectional study was made with a comparison group to investigate a possible excess of Hashimoto's thyroiditis-HT and antibodies-ATA in the surroundings of a Petrochemical Complex.
People of both sexes aged over 20 years were investigated in a random sample of residents in the area surrounding the Petrochemical Complex. Controls were investigated in an area with steel industries. In the areas searched, participants were chosen randomly and stratified a priori by sex and age group. As a result, 90.5% of the expected sample was obtained, totaling 1533 individuals. HT and ATA prevalences were compared by the chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to control the possible confounding factors for HT and ATA.
Both TH (9.3%) and ATA (17.6%) prevalences were higher in the Petrochemical Complex area than in the control area (3.9% and 10.3%, respectively). After controlling the possible confounding factors, the POR for living in the surroundings of the Complex and presenting HT was 2.39 (CI95%: 1.42-4.03). According to the ATA criterion, the POR for living in the surroundings of the Complex was 1.78 (CI95%: 1.23-2.60).
The authors have found higher prevalence and risk of developing thyroiditis and anti-thyroid antibodies among residents of areas surrounding the Petrochemical Complex and think these findings need to be further studied in similar areas.
- The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 02/1962; 83:255-64.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: SUMMARYA survey has been conducted in Whickham, County Durham, to determine the prevalence of thyroid disorders in the community. Two thousand seven hundred and seventy-nine people (82.4% of the available sample) were seen in the survey. The prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism was 19/1000 females rising to 27/1000 females when possible cases were included, compared with 1.6–2.3/1000 males. The prevalence of overt hyothyroidism was 14/1000 females rising to 19/1000 females when possible cases were included, compared with less than 1/1000 males. The prevalence of spontaneous overt hypothyroidism (excluding iatrogenic cases) was 10/1000 females or 15/1000 females including unconfirmed cases. Minor degrees of hypothyroidism were defined on the basis of elevated serum thyrotrophin (TSH) levels in the absence of obvious clinical features of hypothyroidism. TSH levels did not vary with age in males but increased markedly in females after the age of 45 years. The rise of TSH with age in females was virtually abolished when persons with thyroid antibodies were excluded from the sample. TSH levels above 6 mu/1 were shown to reflect a significant lowering of circulating thyroxine levels and showed a strong association with thyroid antibodies in both sexes, independent of age. Elevated TSH levels (>6mu/l) were recorded in 7.5% of females and 2.8% of males of all ages. Thyroglobulin antibodies were present in 2% of the sample. Thyroid cytoplasmic antibodies were present in 6.8% of the sample (females 10.3%, males 2.7%) and their frequency did not vary significantly with age in males but increased markedly in females over 45 years of age. 3% of the sample (females 5.1%, males 1.1%) had thyroid antibodies and elevated TSH levels and the relative risk of a high TSH level in subjects with antibodies was 20:1 for males and 13:1 for females, independent of age. Small goitres (palpable but not visible) were found in 8.6% of the sample and obvious goitres (palpable and visible) in 6.9%. Goitres were four times more common in females than in males and were most commonly found in younger rather than older females. TSH levels were slightly but not significantly lower in those with goitre than in those without goitre. There was a weak association between goitre and antibodies in females but not males.Clinical Endocrinology 11/1977; 7(6):481 - 493. · 3.40 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is abundant evidence for a genetic influence on the development of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). One measure of the magnitude of genetic contribution to the development of a disease is the sibling risk ratio (lambda(s)). Recent accurate prevalence data for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in the United States reported from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) study have now allowed us to compute the sibling recurrence risk for AITD. Patients were recruited from our endocrine clinic on the basis of having AITD. The inclusion of patients in this study was unambiguously single ascertainment. We studied 155 patients (131 with Graves' disease [GD] and 24 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis [HT]) who had reliable information on the presence or absence of AITD in siblings. Nine probands had siblings with GD and 13 probands had siblings with HT. Using the prevalence rates from NHANES III for clinical hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, the calculated lambda(s) was 16.9 for AITD, 11.6 for GD, and 28.0 for HT. These results confirm the significant contribution of genetic factors to the development of AITD.Thyroid 09/2003; 13(8):761-4. · 3.54 Impact Factor