Grafts in myringoplasty: Utilizing a silk fibroin scaffold as a novel device

Ear Science Institute Australia, Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia.
Expert Review of Medical Devices (Impact Factor: 1.68). 11/2009; 6(6):653-64. DOI: 10.1586/erd.09.47
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic perforations of the eardrum or tympanic membrane represent a significant source of morbidity worldwide. Myringoplasty is the operative repair of a perforated tympanic membrane and is a procedure commonly performed by otolaryngologists. Its purpose is to close the tympanic membrane, improve hearing and limit patient susceptibility to middle ear infections. The success rates of the different surgical techniques used to perform a myringoplasty, and the optimal graft materials to achieve complete closure and restore hearing, vary significantly in the literature. A number of autologous tissues, homografts and synthetic materials are described as graft options. With the advent and development of tissue engineering in the last decade, a number of biomaterials have been studied and attempts have been made to mimic biological functions with these materials. Fibroin, a core structural protein in silk from silkworms, has been widely studied with biomedical applications in mind. Several cell types, including keratinocytes, have grown on silk biomaterials, and scaffolds manufactured from silk have successfully been used in wound healing and for tissue engineering purposes. This review focuses on the current available grafts for myringoplasty and their limitations, and examines the biomechanical properties of silk, assessing the potential benefits of a silk fibroin scaffold as a novel device for use as a graft in myringoplasty surgery.

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    • "Recent research developments in the fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering may provide alternatives for TM reconstruction [1]. Biomaterials such as silk, collagen, chitosan, and AlloDerm have been investigated extensively [1] [4]. Silk fibroin, derived from silkworms, is a promising bioscaffold in regenerative medicine, due to its favourable properties such as high strength, low antigenicity, and controllable biodegradability [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent experimental studies have shown the suitability of silk fibroin scaffold (SFS) and porcine-derived acellular collagen I/III scaffold (ACS) as onlay graft materials for tympanic membrane perforation repair. The aims of this study were to further characterize and evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of SFS and ACS compared with commonly used materials such as Gelfoam and paper in a rat model. The scaffolds were implanted in subcutaneous (SC) tissue and middle ear (ME) cavity followed by histological and otoscopic evaluation for up to 26 weeks. Our results revealed that SFS and ACS were well tolerated and compatible in rat SC and ME tissues throughout the study. The tissue response adjacent to the implants evaluated by histology and otoscopy showed SFS and ACS to have a milder tissue response with minimal inflammation compared to that of paper. Gelfoam gave similar results to SFS and ACS after SC implantation, but it was found to be associated with pronounced fibrosis and osteoneogenesis after ME implantation. It is concluded that SFS and ACS both were biocompatible and could serve as potential alternative scaffolds for tissue engineering in the ear.
    Biomedical Materials 02/2014; 9(1):015015. DOI:10.1088/1748-6041/9/1/015015 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    • "Proteins are suitable natural polymers, widely distributed in nature and can be effectively processed into various shapes like film, hydrogel and fiber. Collagen [3], fibroin [4,5], gelatin [6] are the most commonly utilized proteins for tissue engineering application. Biomaterials based on these proteins still cannot satisfy all the tissue engineering requirements due to a few problems in the biocompatibility, the mechanical properties and the degradation ratio. "
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    ABSTRACT: An environmental physical method described herein was developed to improve the tensile properties of Bombyx mori cocoon sericin films, by using the plasticizer of glycerol, which has a nontoxic effect compared with other chemical crosslinkers. The changes in the tensile characteristics and the structure of glycerolated (0-40 wt% of glycerol) sericin films were investigated. Sericin films, both in dry and wet states, showed enhanced tensile properties, which might be regulated by the addition of different concentrations of glycerol. The introduction of glycerol results in the higher amorphous structure in sericin films as evidenced by analysis of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra, thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observation revealed that glycerol was homogeneously blended with sericin molecules when its content was 10 wt%, while a small amount of redundant glycerol emerged on the surface of sericin films when its content was increased to 20 wt% or higher. Our results suggest that the introduction of glycerol is a novel nontoxic strategy which can improve the mechanical features of sericin-based materials and subsequently promote the feasibility of its application in tissue engineering.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2011; 12(5):3170-81. DOI:10.3390/ijms12053170 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Silk contains a fibre forming protein, fibroin, which is biocompatible, particularly after removing the potentially immunogenic non-fibroin proteins. Silk can be engineered into a wide range of materials with diverse morphologies. Moreover, it is possible to regenerate fibroin with a desired amount of crystallinity, so that the biodegradation of silk materials can be controlled. These advantages have sparked new interest in the use of silk fibroin for biomedical applications, including tissue engineering scaffolds and carriers for sustained release of biologically active molecules. This article summarizes the current research related to the formation of silk materials with different morphologies, their biocompatibility, and examples of their biomedical applications. Recent work on the preparation of silk particles by mechanical milling and their applications in silk composite scaffolds is also discussed.
    Journal of Fiber Bioengineering and Informatics 03/2010; 2(4):583-593. DOI:10.3993/Tbis2010103
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