Inhibition of tumor proteasome activity by gold-dithiocarbamato complexes via both redox-dependent and -independent processes.
ABSTRACT We have previously reported on a gold(III) complex, namely [AuBr(2)(DMDT)] (N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate) showing potent in vitro and in vivo growth inhibitory activities toward human cancer cells and identifying the cellular proteasome as one of the major targets. However, the importance of the oxidation state of the gold center and the involved mechanism of action has yet to be established. Here we show that both gold(III)- and gold(I)-dithiocarbamato species, namely [AuBr(2)(ESDT)] (AUL12) and [Au(ESDT)](2) (AUL15), could inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasome and 26S proteasome in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, resulting in accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and proteasome target proteins, and induction of cell death, but at significantly different levels. Gold(I)- and gold(III)-compound-mediated proteasome inhibition and cell death induction were completely reversed by the addition of a reducing agent, dithiothreitol or N-acetyl-L-cysteine, suggesting the involvement of redox processes. Furthermore, treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with gold(III) compound (AUL12), but not the gold(I) analog (AUL15), resulted in the production of significant levels of reactive oxygen species. Our study provides strong evidence that the cellular proteasome is an important target of both gold(I) and gold(III)-dithiocarbamates, but distinct cellular mechanisms of action are responsible for their different overall effect.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the ability of NAC to inhibit in vitro LDL oxidation, and the effects of the timing of NAC addition, repeated additions of NAC, and the presence of preoxidized LDL, on the oxidation reaction. NAC inhibited in vitro LDL oxidation induced by copper sulfate, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, and UV light, and protected LDL against depletion of antioxidant vitamins. Glutathione was similarly effective against copper-mediated LDL oxidation. NAC's effectiveness was inversely related to the timing of its addition. Sequential NAC additions prolonged the lag phase more effectively than initial addition of the same total dose. NAC reduced CD formation during the oxidation of native LDL by oxidized LDL. NAC's effectiveness as an inhibitor of in vitro LDL oxidation is dependent on the temporal sequence of the oxidation reaction, sequential additions, and the presence of previously oxidized LDL.Atherosclerosis 07/1998; 138(2):319-27. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Based on the ability of bile acids to vectorialize the cytostatic activity of other agents, we have designed and synthesized a new series of platinum and gold complexes. These compounds were studied and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, FAB(+)/MS, 1H, 13C and 195Pt NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and conductivity measurements in solution, among other techniques. Kinetic studies carried out in aqueous solution and in the presence of different NaCl concentrations: 4 mM (similar to cytoplasmic concentration), 150 mM (similar to plasmatic concentration). The effects on the electrophoretic mobility of the pUC18 plasmid, the DNA denaturation temperature, and ethidium bromide (EtBr) binding to DNA were studied. The complexes are able to inter-react with DNA to inhibit DNA synthesis and hence, to reduce cell proliferation. The complexes were evaluated for in vitro cytostatic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma, mouse hepatoma, human hepatoma, mouse leukemia, etc. The antitumor effect of some of the compounds prepared was similar to that of cisplatin. However, other compounds had lower cytostatic activity. This different behavior can be accounted for by the structure/activity relationship (SAR), although other factors, such as uptake and the different kinetic behavior in solution, may be responsible for these differences.Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 09/2003; 96(2-3):311-20. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL) is a mature B-cell lymphoma with an aggressive course and generally poor prognosis. Conventional chemotherapy has little efficacy. Bortezomib is a novel, reversible, and highly specific proteasome inhibitor that appears as a new hope for MCL treatment. We have analyzed the in vitro sensitivity to bortezomib in 4 MCL cell lines and in primary tumor cells from 10 MCL patients. Bortezomib induced phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial depolarization, ROS generation, Bax and Bak conformational changes, and caspase activation. In addition, ROS scavengers, but not pancaspase inhibitors, blocked all apoptosis hallmarks. Protein and mRNA-expression analysis, revealed marked up-regulation of the BH3-only protein Noxa, between 4 to 6 hours after bortezomib addition, independent of p53 status. However, this up-regulation was faster and higher in cells with functional p53. Noxa RNA interference markedly decreased sensitivity to bortezomib, pointing to this protein as a key mediator between proteasome inhibition and mitochondrial depolarization in MCL cells. Noxa interacts with the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 and promotes Bak release from Mcl-1, suggesting that up-regulation of Noxa might counteract Mcl-1 accumulation after bortezomib treatment. These findings should be useful to extend the therapeutic strategies in MCL patients and to improve their prognosis.Blood 02/2006; 107(1):257-64. · 9.06 Impact Factor