Inhibition of tumor proteasome activity by gold-dithiocarbamato complexes via both redox-dependent and -independent processes.
ABSTRACT We have previously reported on a gold(III) complex, namely [AuBr(2)(DMDT)] (N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate) showing potent in vitro and in vivo growth inhibitory activities toward human cancer cells and identifying the cellular proteasome as one of the major targets. However, the importance of the oxidation state of the gold center and the involved mechanism of action has yet to be established. Here we show that both gold(III)- and gold(I)-dithiocarbamato species, namely [AuBr(2)(ESDT)] (AUL12) and [Au(ESDT)](2) (AUL15), could inhibit the chymotrypsin-like activity of purified 20S proteasome and 26S proteasome in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, resulting in accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and proteasome target proteins, and induction of cell death, but at significantly different levels. Gold(I)- and gold(III)-compound-mediated proteasome inhibition and cell death induction were completely reversed by the addition of a reducing agent, dithiothreitol or N-acetyl-L-cysteine, suggesting the involvement of redox processes. Furthermore, treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with gold(III) compound (AUL12), but not the gold(I) analog (AUL15), resulted in the production of significant levels of reactive oxygen species. Our study provides strong evidence that the cellular proteasome is an important target of both gold(I) and gold(III)-dithiocarbamates, but distinct cellular mechanisms of action are responsible for their different overall effect.
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ABSTRACT: Proteasomes are attractive emerging targets for anti-cancer therapies. Auranofin (Aur), a gold-containing compound clinically used to treat rheumatic arthritis, was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration for Phase II clinical trial to treat cancer but its anti-cancer mechanism is poorly understood. Here we report that (i) Aur shows proteasome-inhibitory effect that is comparable to that of bortezomib/Velcade (Vel); (ii) different from bortezomib, Aur inhibits proteasome-associated deubiquitinases (DUBs) UCHL5 and USP14 rather than the 20S proteasome; (iii) inhibition of the proteasome-associated DUBs is required for Aur-induced cytotoxicity; and (iv) Aur selectively inhibits tumor growth in vivo and induces cytotoxicity in cancer cells from acute myeloid leukemia patients. This study provides important novel insight into understanding the proteasome-inhibiting property of metal-containing compounds. Although several DUB inhibitors were reported, this study uncovers the first drug already used in clinic that can inhibit proteasome-associated DUBs with promising anti-tumor effects.Oncotarget 06/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AQP3 has been correlated with higher transport of glycerol, increment of ATP content, and larger proliferation capacity. Recently, we described the gold(III) complex Auphen as a very selective and potent inhibitor of AQP3's glycerol permeability (Pgly). Here we evaluated Auphen effect on the proliferation of various mammalian cell lines differing in AQP3 expression level: no expression (PC12), moderate (NIH/3T3) or high (A431) endogenous expression, cells stably expressing AQP3 (PC12-AQP3), and human HEK293T cells transiently transfected (HEK-AQP3) for AQP3 expression. Proliferation was evaluated in the absence or presence of Auphen (5 μM) by counting number of viable cells and analyzing 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Auphen reduced ≈50% the proliferation in A431 and PC12-AQP3, ≈15% in HEK-AQP3 and had no effect in wt-PC12 and NIH/3T3. Strong arrest in the S-G2/M phases of the cell cycle, supported by analysis of cyclins (A, B1, D1, E) levels, was observed in AQP3-expressing cells treated with Auphen. Flow-cytometry of propidium iodide incorporation and measurements of mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity confirmed absence of cytotoxic effect of the drug. Functional studies evidenced ≈50% inhibition of A431 Pgly by Auphen, showing that the compound's anti-proliferative effect correlates with its ability to inhibit AQP3 Pgly. Role of Cys-40 on AQP3 permeability blockage by Auphen was confirmed by analyzing the mutated protein (AQP3-Ser-40). Accordingly, cells transfected with mutated AQP3 gained resistance to the antiproliferative effect of Auphen. These results highlight an Auphen inhibitory effect on proliferation of cells expressing AQP3 and suggest a targeted therapeutic effect on carcinomas with large AQP3 expression. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 03/2014; · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Six structurally diverse cytotoxic gold compounds are reported to cause profound and differential inhibition of the three main catalytic activities of purified 20S proteasome whilst auranofin, an established gold(I) drug in clinical use, is nearly ineffective. In particular, the gold(I) complex [(pbiH)Au(PPh3)]PF6, turns out to be the most potent inhibitor of all three enzyme activities with sub-micromolar IC50 values. The present results further support the view that proteasome inhibition may play a major - yet not exclusive - role in the cytotoxic actions of gold based anticancer agents.Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 08/2014; 141C:79-82. · 3.27 Impact Factor