Foreskin development in 10 421 Chinese boys aged 0-18 years.
ABSTRACT Few studies on foreskin development and the practice of circumcision have been done in Chinese boys. This study aimed to determine the natural development process of foreskin in children.
A total of 10 421 boys aged 0 to 18 years were studied. The condition of foreskin was classified into type I (phimosis), type II (partial phimosis), type III (adhesion of prepuce), type IV (normal), and type V (circumcised). Other abnormalities of the genitalia were also determined.
The incidence of a completely retractile foreskin increased from 0% at birth to 42.26% in adolescence; however, the phimosis rate decreased with age from 99.7% to 6.81%. Other abnormalities included web penis, concealed penis, cryptorchidism, hydrocele, micropenis, inguinal hernia, and hypospadias.
Incomplete separation of foreskin is common in children. Since it is a natural phenomenon to approach the adult condition until puberty, circumcision should be performed with cautions in children.
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Article: Circumcision of children.BMJ Clinical Research 03/1996; 312(7027):377. DOI:10.1136/bmj.312.7027.377a
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ABSTRACT: Phimosis is a condition in which the prepuce cannot be retracted over the glans penis. Actually, physiologic phimosis is common in male patients up to 3 years of age, but often extends into older age groups. Balanoposthitisis a common inflammation occurring in 4-11% of uncircumcised boys. Circumcision is generally undertaken for three reasons: first, as an item of religious practice, typically neonatally although occasionally transpubertally, as a rite of passage; second, as a prophylactic measure against future ailments for the reduction in the risk of penile cancer, urinary tract infection, and sexually transmitted infection; and third, for immediate medical indication. Balanitisxeroticaobliterans is an infiltrative skin condition that causes a pathological phimosis and has been considered to be the only absolute indication for circumcision. Various kinds of effective alternatives to circumcision have been described, including manual retraction therapy, topical steroid therapy, and several variations of preputioplasty. All of these treatments have the ability to retract the foreskin as their goal and do not involve the removal of the entire foreskin. Paraphimosis is a condition in which the foreskin is left retracted. When manipulation is not effective, a dorsal slit should be done, which is usually followed by circumcision.The Scientific World Journal 01/2011; 11:289-301. DOI:10.1100/tsw.2011.31
Article: Circumcision in ChildrenThe Indian Journal of Pediatrics 05/2011; 79(1):107-8. DOI:10.1007/s12098-011-0451-8