Pim-1 controls NF-kappaB signalling by stabilizing RelA/p65.
ABSTRACT Post-translational modification and degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system are key regulatory mechanisms in cellular responses to various stimuli. The NF-kappaB signaling pathway is controlled by the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. RelA/p65, which is a main subunit of NF-kappaB, is ubiquitinated for degradation by SOCS-1, but the functional mechanism of its ubiquitination remains poorly understood. In this study we show that phosphorylation of RelA/p65 at Ser276 prevents its degradation by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In contrast, impairment of Ser276 phosphorylation affects constitutive degradation of RelA/p65. Importantly, we identify Pim-1 as a further kinase responsible for the phosphorylation of RelA/p65 at Ser276. Depletion of Pim-1 hinders not only Ser276 phosphorylation but also transactivation of RelA/p65 target genes. We also show that Pim-1 contributes to recruitment of RelA/p65 to kappaB-elements to activate NF-kappaB signalling after TNF-alpha stimulation. In concert with these results, the knockdown of Pim-1 impairs IL-6 production and augments apoptosis by interfering RelA/p65 activation. These findings provide a model in which Pim-1 phosphorylation of RelA/p65 at Ser276 allows defense against ubiquitin-mediated degradation and whereby exerts activation of NF-kappaB signalling.
Article: NF-kappaB P50/P65 hetero-dimer mediates differential regulation of CD166/ALCAM expression via interaction with micoRNA-9 after serum deprivation, providing evidence for a novel negative auto-regulatory loop.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CD166/ALCAM plays an important role in tumor aggression and progression as well as protecting cancer cells against apoptosis and autophagy. However, the mechanism by which pro-cell death signals control CD166 expression remains unclear. Here we show that following serum deprivation (SD), upregulation of CD166 protein is shorter than that of CD166 mRNA. Molecular analysis revealed both CD166 and miR-9-1 as two novel NF-κB target genes in hepatoma cells. In vivo activation and translocation of the NF-κB P50/P65 hetero-dimer into the nucleus following the phosphorylation and accompanied degradation of its inhibitor, IκBα, contributes to efficient transcription of both genes following SD. We show that following serum starvation, delayed up-regulation of miR-9 represses translation of CD166 protein through its target sites in the 3'-UTR of CD166 mRNA. We also propose that miR-9 promotes cell migration largely due to inhibition of CD166. Collectively, the study elucidates a novel negative auto-regulatory loop in which NF-κB mediates differential regulation of CD166 after SD.Nucleic Acids Research 05/2011; 39(15):6440-55. · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: M-CSF induces monocyte survival by activating NF-κB p65 phosphorylation at Ser276 via protein kinase C.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) promotes mononuclear phagocyte survival and proliferation. The transcription factor Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB) is a key regulator of genes involved in M-CSF-induced mononuclear phagocyte survival and this study focused at identifying the mechanism of NF-κB transcriptional activation. Here, we demonstrate that M-CSF stimulated NF-κB transcriptional activity in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. The general protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro-31-8220, the conventional PKCα/β inhibitor Gö-6976, overexpression of dominant negative PKCα constructs and PKCα siRNA reduced NF-κB activity in response to M-CSF. Interestingly, Ro-31-8220 reduced Ser276 phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 leading to decreased M-CSF-induced monocyte survival. In this report, we identify conventional PKCs, including PKCα as important upstream kinases for M-CSF-induced NF-κB transcriptional activation, NF-κB-regulated gene expression, NF-κB p65 Ser276 phosphorylation, and macrophage survival. Lastly, we find that NF-κB p65 Ser276 plays an important role in basal and M-CSF-stimulated NF-κB activation in human mononuclear phagocytes.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e28081. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Monoubiquitination of nuclear RelA negatively regulates NF-κB activity independent of proteasomal degradation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Termination and resolution of inflammation are tightly linked to the inactivation of one of its strongest inducers, NF-κB. While canonical post-stimulus inactivation is achieved by upregulation of inhibitory molecules that relocate NF-κB complexes to the cytoplasm, termination of the NF-κB response can also be accomplished directly in the nucleus by posttranslational modifications, e.g., ubiquitination of the RelA subunit. Here we reveal a functional role for RelA monoubiquitination in regulating NF-κB activity. By employing serine-to-alanine mutants, we found that hypo-phosphorylated nuclear RelA is monoubiquitinated on multiple lysine residues. Ubiquitination was reversed by IκBα expression and was reduced when nuclear translocation was inhibited. RelA monoubiquitination decreased NF-κB transcriptional activity despite prolonged nuclear presence and independently of RelA degradation, possibly through decreased CREB-binding protein (CBP) co-activator binding. Polyubiquitin-triggered proteasomal degradation has been proposed as a model for RelA inactivation. However, here we show that proteasomal inhibition, similar to RelA hypo-phosphorylation, resulted in nuclear translocation and monoubiquitination of RelA. These findings indicate a degradation-independent mechanism for regulating the activity of nuclear RelA by ubiquitination.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 01/2012; 69(12):2057-73. · 6.57 Impact Factor