Effect of Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance and Perception of Fatigue in Male Elite Judo Athletes

Research Unit Evaluation, Sport, Health, National Center of Medicine and Science in Sports, Tunis, Tunisia.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 11/2009; 23(9):2702-9. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181bc17fc
Source: PubMed


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the Ramadan intermittent fast (RIF) on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance in elite judo athletes (Judokas) maintaining their usual training loads. Physical performance tests (squat jump [SJ]), countermovement jump [CMJ], 30-second repeated jump, 30-m sprint, and the multistage fitness test) and fatigue scores were measured in 15 elite Judokas on 4 occasions: before Ramadan (T1), at the beginning of Ramadan (T2), at the end of Ramadan (T3) and 3 weeks after Ramadan. Results showed that 30-m sprint performance, multistage shuttle run test, SJ, and CMJ did not change during Ramadan. However, average power during the 30-second repeated jump test was slightly lower at the end of Ramadan (22.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg; P < 0.05) than before Ramadan (23.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg). There was a minor reduction of 1.3 kg in body mass and an increase in total fatigue scores (T2, 19 +/- 5; T3, 16 +/- 4; both P < 0.05) during Ramadan in comparison with the control period (T1, 12 +/- 3). These results show that the RIF has little effect on aerobic performance and on very short duration sprinting and jumping test performance in elite Judokas. Additionally, experienced athletes can maintain both sufficient energy intake and normal training loads during the RIF. The slight reduction in the 30-second jump test may be associated with reduced central drive and body mass. Collectively, these results suggest that the RIF has little effect on the performance of experienced Judokas, but Muslim athletes who train during the RIF should carefully periodize their training load and monitor their food intake and fatigue levels to avoid performance decrements.

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    • "Likewise, this study showed higher afternoon RPE scores during Ramadan compared with BR. This is consistent with the findings of Chaouachi et al. (2009) who reported an increase in total fatigue scores during Ramadan than BR in elite judokas maintaining their usual training loads. More recently, Chtourou et al. (2011) observed higher RPE scores during Ramadan after the RSA, the Wingate, and the Yo- Yo tests. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Ramadan on the diurnal variations of physical performance and perceived exertion in adolescent soccer players. Twelve young male soccer players (age 13.3 ± 0.4 yrs; height 164.8 ± 2.9 cm; body mass 60.9 ± 6.5 kg) completed vertical jump tests and the multistage 20-m shuttle run test one week before Ramadan (BR) and during the fourth week of Ramadan (R4) in the morning and in the afternoon. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scores were obtained after the shuttle test. The results showed that squat jump and countermovement jump performances and predicted VO2max were higher in the afternoon than the morning only BR (p p p p Keywords: endurance performance; fasting; short-term performance; time of day Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09291016.2013.780697 Affiliations: Research Laboratory “Sport Performance Optimization”, National Centre of Medicine and Sciences in Sport (CNMSS), Tunis, Tunisia Publication date: December 1, 2013 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher By this author: Aloui, Asma ; Chtourou, Hamdi ; Hammouda, Omar ; Souissi, Hichem ; Chaouachi, Anis ; Chamari, Karim ; Souissi, Nizar GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
    Biological Rhythm Research 12/2013; 44(6):869–875. DOI:10.1080/09291016.2013.780697 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    • "In the small number of studies that have examined the effect of Ramadan fasting on the mood states of competitive athletes , only fatigue levels and tiredness are usually greater during the fast ( Chaouachi et al . , 2009a ; Chennaoui et al . , 2009 ; Leiper et al . , 2008b ) ."
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    ABSTRACT: The behavioural modifications that accompany Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) are usually associated with some alterations in the metabolic, physiological, and psychological responses of athletes that may affect sport performance. Muslim athletes who are required to train and/or compete during the month-long, diurnal fast must adopt coping strategies that allow them to maintain physical fitness and motivation if they are to perform at the highest level. This updated review aims to present the current state of knowledge of the effects of RIF on training and performance, focusing on key-factors that contribute to the effects of Ramadan on exercise performance: energy restriction, sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm perturbation, dehydration, and alterations in the training load. The available literature contain few studies that have examined the effects of RIF on physical performance in athletes and, to date, the results are inconclusive, so the effects of RIF on competition outcomes are not at present wholly understood. The diverse findings probably indicate individual differences in the adaptability and self-generated coping strategies of athletes during fasting and training. However, the results of the small number of well-controlled studies that have examined the effects of Ramadan on athletic performance suggest that few aspects of physical fitness are negatively affected, and where decrements are observed these are usually modest. Subjective feelings of fatigue and other mood indicators are often cited as implying additional stress on the athlete throughout Ramadan, but most studies show that these factors may not result in decreases in performance and that perceived exercise intensity is unlikely to increase to any significant degree. Current evidence from good, well-controlled research supports the conclusion that athletes who maintain their total energy and macronutrient intake, training load, body composition, and sleep length and quality are unlikely to suffer any substantial decrements in performance during Ramadan. Further research is required to determine the effect of RIF on the most challenging events or exercise protocols and on elite athletes competing in extreme environments.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 06/2012; 30 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S53-73. DOI:10.1080/02640414.2012.698297 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    • "Nevertheless, despite this, fasting athletes report higher fatigue at the end of Ramadan (Chaouachi et al., 2009c; Gü venç, 2011). The increased perception of fatigue reported during Ramadan fasting and the combination of intense training with altered carbohydrate intake, hydration status, and sleeping disturbances may place fasting Muslim athletes at greater risk of overreaching or overtraining during Ramadan (Chaouachi et al., 2009a, 2009b), which can result in physical injury, especially overuse injuries (Johnson & Thiese, 1992). Most previous studies have addressed whether the holy month of Ramadan has any detrimental impact on performance and cognitive functions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many of the socio-cultural lifestyle and dietary changes that take place during Ramadan may affect the risk of injury in athletes, but little evidence is available. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects over two consecutive years of the holy month of Ramadan on injury rates in 42 professional players of a Tunisian top-level professional soccer team. Players were retrospectively organized into fasting and non-fasting groups and monitored for 3 months: 4 weeks before Ramadan, during the month of Ramadan (4 weeks), and 4 weeks after Ramadan each year. During Ramadan, training started at 22.00 h. The circumstances (training/match) and mechanism of injury (traumatic/overuse) were recorded. No significant differences between the three periods were observed for weekly mean training load, training strain, training duration, and Hooper's Index (quality of sleep, and quantities of stress, delayed-onset muscle soreness, and fatigue). Compared with non-fasting players, fasters had a lower (P < 0.05) Hooper's Index and stress during and after Ramadan. No significant difference in injury rates was observed between fasting and non-fasting players. Nevertheless, the rates of non-contact (6.8 vs. 0.6 and 1.1) and training overuse (5.6 vs. 0.6 and 0.5) injuries were significantly higher in fasting players during the month of Ramadan than before or after Ramadan. In conclusion, Ramadan, along with the corresponding changes in nutritional habits, sleeping schedule, and socio-cultural and religious events, significantly increased overuse and non-contact injuries in fasting players despite the fact that the training load, strain, and duration were maintained.
    Journal of Sports Sciences 06/2012; 30 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S93-102. DOI:10.1080/02640414.2012.696674 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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