Human mandible bone defect repair by the grafting of dental pulp stem / progenitor cells and collagen sponge

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Histology and Embryology, TERM Division, 2nd University of Naples, Naples, Italy.
European cells & materials (Impact Factor: 4.89). 07/2009; 18:75-83.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this study we used a biocomplex constructed from dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPCs) and a collagen sponge scaffold for oro-maxillo-facial (OMF) bone tissue repair in patients requiring extraction of their third molars. The experiments were carried out according to our Internal Ethical Committee Guidelines and written informed consent was obtained from the patients. The patients presented with bilateral bone reabsorption of the alveolar ridge distal to the second molar secondary to impaction of the third molar on the cortical alveolar lamina, producing a defect without walls, of at least 1.5 cm in height. This clinical condition does not permit spontaneous bone repair after extraction of the third molar, and eventually leads to loss also of the adjacent second molar. Maxillary third molars were extracted first for DPC isolation and expansion. The cells were then seeded onto a collagen sponge scaffold and the obtained biocomplex was used to fill in the injury site left by extraction of the mandibular third molars. Three months after autologous DPC grafting, alveolar bone of patients had optimal vertical repair and complete restoration of periodontal tissue back to the second molars, as assessed by clinical probing and X-rays. Histological observations clearly demonstrated the complete regeneration of bone at the injury site. Optimal bone regeneration was evident one year after grafting. This clinical study demonstrates that a DPC/collagen sponge biocomplex can completely restore human mandible bone defects and indicates that this cell population could be used for the repair and/or regeneration of tissues and organs.

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Available from: Riccardo D'Aquino, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "From a translational perspective, the biomimetic scaffolds can be mass-produced using human pulp cell lines. Published studies have demonstrated the safety of telomerase transfected human cell lines (Nakahara et al., 2009; Bourgine et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Dental caries is one of the most widely prevalent infectious diseases in the world. It affects more than half of the world's population. The current treatment for necrotic dental pulp tissue arising from dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality making it prone for secondary infections. Over the past decade, several tissue-engineering approaches have attempted regeneration of the dental pulp tissue. Although several studies have highlighted the potential of dental stem cells, none have transitioned into a clinical setting owing to limited availability of dental stem cells and the need for growth factor delivery systems. Our strategy is to utilize the intact ECM of pulp cells to drive lineage specific differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. From a clinical perspective, pulp ECM scaffolds can be generated using cell lines and patient specific somatic stem cells can be used for regeneration. Our published results have shown the feasibility of using pulp ECM scaffolds for odontogenic differentiation of non-dental mesenchymal cells. This focused review discusses the issues surrounding dental pulp tissue regeneration and the potential of our strategy to overcome these issues.
    Frontiers in Physiology 04/2015; 6:118. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2015.00118 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition, these cells are naturally delegated to dental tissue repair: in fact, DPSCs have been successfully employed in bone repair in vitro [19] [20] and in vivo [21] [22] "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The major challenge for contemporary dentistry is restoration of missing teeth; currently, dental implantation is the treatment of choice in this circumstance. In the present study, we assessed the interaction between implants and Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) in vitro by means of 3D cell culture in order to better simulate physiological conditions. Methods: Sorted CD34+ DPSCs were seeded onto dental implants having either a rough surface (TriVent) or one coated with a ceramic layer mimicking native bone (TiUnite). We evaluated preservation of DPSC viability during osteogenic differentiation by an MTT assay and compared mineralized matrix deposition with SEM analysis and histological staining; temporal expression of osteogenic markers was evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results: Both surfaces are equally biocompatible, preserve DPSC viability, stimulate osteogenic differentiation, and increase the production of VEGF. A slight difference was observed between the two surfaces concerning the speed of DPSC differentiation. Significance: Our study of the two implant surfaces suggests that TriVent, with its roughness, is capable of promoting cell differentiation a bit earlier than the TiUnite surface, although the latter promotes greater cell proliferation.
    Dental Materials 01/2015; 31(3). DOI:10.1016/ · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    • "Such mesenchymal stem cells are extensively used in surgical repair/regeneration, as they instigate from neural crest and migrate, differentiate, participate in morphogenesis to give rise to structures of craniofacial region including muscle, ligament, cartilage, bone, periodontal membrane and teeth.[565758] Graziano et al. and Aquino et al. assessed bone regeneration by DPSCs both clinically and radiographically using a collagen scaffold.[5960] Their results demonstarted that within three months of colonization on the scaffold, complete radiographic bone regeneration could be observed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells are primitive cells that can differentiate and regenerate organs in different parts of the body such as heart, bones, muscles and nervous system. This has been a field of great clinical interest with immense possibilities of using the stem cells in regeneration of human organ those are damaged due to disease, developmental defects and accident. The knowledge of stem cell technology is increasing quickly in all medical specialties and in dental field too. Stem cells of dental origin appears to hold the key to various cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine, but most avenues are in experimental stages and many procedures are undergoing standardization and validation. Long-term preservation of SHED cells or DPSC is becoming a popular consideration, similar to the banking of umbilical cord blood. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are the adult multipotent cells that reside in the cell rich zone of the dental pulp. The multipotent nature of these DPSCs may be utilized in both dental and medical applications. A systematic review of the literature was performed using various internet based search engines (PubMed, Medline Plus, Cochrane, Medknow, Ebsco, Science Direct, Hinari, WebMD, IndMed, Embase) using keywords like "dental pulp stem cells", "regeneration", "medical applications", "tissue engineering". DPSCs appears to be a promising innovation for the re-growth of tissues however, long term clinical studies need to be carried out that could establish some authentic guidelines in this perspective.
    03/2014; 20(1):1-8. DOI:10.4103/1117-6806.127092
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