A novel bioactive three-dimensional beta-tricalcium phosphate/chitosan scaffold for periodontal tissue engineering.
ABSTRACT The development of suitable bioactive three-dimensional scaffold for the promotion of cellular proliferation and differentiation is critical in periodontal tissue engineering. In this study,porous beta-tricalcium phosphate/chitosan composite scaffolds were prepared through a freeze-drying method. These scaffolds were evaluated by analysis of microscopic structure, porosity, and cytocompatibility. The gene expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and cementum attachment protein (CAP) was detected with RT-PCR after human periodontal ligament cells (HPLCs) were seeded in these scaffolds. Then cell-scaffold complexes were implanted subcutaneously into athymic mice. The protein expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteopontin (OPN) was detected in vivo. Results indicated that composite scaffolds displayed a homogeneous three-dimensional microstructure; suitable pore size (120 microm) and high porosity (91.07%). The composite scaffold showed higher proliferation rate than the pure chitosan scaffold, and up-regulated the gene expression of BSP and CAP. In vivo, HPLCs in the composite scaffold not only proliferated but also recruited vascular tissue ingrowth. The protein expression of ALP and OPN was up-regulated in the composite scaffold. Therefore, it was suggested that the composite scaffold could promote the differentiation of HPLCs towards osteoblast and cementoblast phenotypes.