Article

Effects of Glucocorticoids on Mood, Memory, and the Hippocampus

Psychoneuroendocrine Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas, USA.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.31). 10/2009; 1179(1):41-55. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04981.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Corticosteroids, such as prednisone and dexamethasone, are commonly prescribed medications that suppress the immune system and decrease inflammation. Common side effects of long-term treatment with corticosteroids include weight gain, osteoporosis, and diabetes mellitus. This paper reviews the literature on psychiatric and cognitive changes during corticosteroid therapy and potential treatment options. Hypomania and mania are the most common mood changes during acute corticosteroid therapy, although depression has also been reported. However, depression is reported to be more common than mania during long-term treatment with corticosteroids. A decline in declarative and working memory is also reported during corticosteroid therapy. Corticosteroids are associated with changes in the temporal lobe, detected by structural, functional, and spectroscopic imaging. The mood and cognitive symptoms are dose dependent and frequently occur during the first few weeks of therapy. Other risk factors are not well characterized. Controlled trials suggest that lithium and phenytoin can prevent mood symptoms associated with corticosteroids. Lamotrigine and memantine also have been shown to reverse, at least partially, the declarative memory effects of corticosteroids. Uncontrolled trials suggest that antipsychotics, anti-seizure medications, and perhaps some antidepressants can also be useful for normalizing mood changes associated with corticosteroids. Thus, both the symptoms and treatment response are similar to those of bipolar disorder. Moreover, corticosteroid-induced mood and cognitive alterations have been shown to be reversible with dose reduction or discontinuation of treatment.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: E. Sherwood Brown, Jun 03, 2014
1 Follower
 · 
121 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Prenatal stress is a group of psychophysiological responses that a pregnant female shows when confronting by a threatening situation. This produces neurochemical changes that may affect hippocampal development of the offspring. To analyze the effects of intrauterine stress on spatial learning and memory of Wistar rat offspring. Wistar rats were divided in two groups: Control and prenatal stress. During the critical period for the development of the central nervous system development (from day 12 to 18 of gestation), the experimental rats were exposed to prenatal stress using a restraint stress model. Control rats were kept under standard housing conditions. At 21-days postpartum, spatial learning and memory were evaluated with the Morris water maze. Intrauterine-stressed offspring showed less weight gain (62.7 +/- 11.7 g) compared to controls (71.3 +/- 7.4 g; t (42) = 2.87; P = 0.006). Spatial learning assessment indicated that intrauterine-stressed animals showed higher escape latencies (63 +/- 14 s) than the control group (49 +/- 13 seg; t (42) = 3.2, P = 0.003). The navigation pattern of the stress group was allocentric as compared to the egocentric strategy shown by controls. No significant statistical differences were found in memory consolidation. Intrauterine stress impairs hippocampal function during postnatal development. The knowledge of deleterious effects of intrauterine stress may be helpful in establishing primary prevention strategies of pregnant women exposed to this risk factor.
    Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion 01/2011; 63(3):279-86. · 0.31 Impact Factor
  • Thérapie 05/2013; 68(3):179-81. DOI:10.2515/therapie/2013026 · 0.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper presents an inelastic element for the analysis of beams on foundations. The element is derived from a two-field mixed formulation with independent approximation of forces and displacements. The state determination algorithm for the implementation of the element in a general purpose nonlinear finite element analysis program is presented and its stability characteristics are discussed. Numerical studies are performed to compare the model with the classical displacement formulation. The studies confirm the superiority of the proposed model in describing the inelastic behavior of beams on foundations.
    Computers & Structures 04/2003; 81(7):411-421. DOI:10.1016/S0045-7949(03)00015-4 · 2.18 Impact Factor