Visible Light Water Splitting Using Dye-Sensitized Oxide Semiconductors

Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
Accounts of Chemical Research (Impact Factor: 22.32). 11/2009; 42(12):1966-73. DOI: 10.1021/ar9002398
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Researchers are intensively investigating photochemical water splitting as a means of converting solar to chemical energy in the form of fuels. Hydrogen is a key solar fuel because it can be used directly in combustion engines or fuel cells, or combined catalytically with CO2 to make carbon containing fuels. Different approaches to solar water splitting include semiconductor particles as photocatalysts and photoelectrodes, molecular donor-acceptor systems linked to catalysts for hydrogen and oxygen evolution, and photovoltaic cells coupled directly or indirectly to electrocatalysts.

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    • "Photosensitization of TiO 2 by dyes is another promising method to shift its optical response from the ultraviolet to the visible light region, which has been widely used in dye-sensitized solar cells [15] [16] [17] [18]. Recently, some studies have focused on the further expansion of ruthenium bipyridyl complexes sensitized TiO 2 for visiblelight-induced hydrogen production with Pt nanopaticles as the cocatalyst [19] [20] [21] [22] [23]. However, these systems were limited by the expensive cost of noble metals, and it is necessary to develop noble-metal-free dye-sensitized hydrogen evolution systems based on earth-abundant transition metals. "
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    ABSTRACT: Titanium dioxide is an excellent photocatalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen production but its application is limited by its poor visible light harvesting capability. In this work, a visible-light-responsive photocatalytic hydrogen production system was developed using Zn(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (ZnTCPP) sensitized MoS2/TiO2 (ZnTCPP-MoS2/TiO2) as photocatalysts. The as-prepared composite photocatalysts have apparent adsorption in visible light region, making them active for visible-light-induced hydrogen evolution. Even without noble metals, ZnTCPP-MoS2/TiO2 photocatalyst loaded with 1.00 wt% MoS2 shows the highest H2 production rate of 10.2 μmol h−1, and the turnover number (TON) with respect to ZnTCPP dye reaches 261 after visible light irradiation for 12 h. The highest H2 production rate of ZnTCPP-MoS2/TiO2 is much higher than that of ZnTCPP-Pt/TiO2, suggesting that MoS2 can act as a more effective cocatalyst than the commonly used platinum. This study presents a noble-metal-free and visible-light-responsive TiO2-based photocatalyst for solar-to-hydrogen conversion.
    Chemical Engineering Journal 09/2015; 275. DOI:10.1016/j.cej.2015.04.015 · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    • "). The most widely used dyes were metal complexes (Youngblood et al. 2009). Maruthamuthu et al. achieved overall water splitting for H 2 and O 2 production simultaneously using [Ru(dcbyp) 2 (dpq )] 2? -sensitized Pt/TiO 2 (Dhanalakshmi et al. 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Nanosheet (with around 20 nm in thickness)-stacked hollow-sphere TiO2 was synthesized via a modified solvothermal reaction for different times followed by calcination treatment at different temperatures. After surface modification by different cations (H+ or Fe3+) and further sensitization by Eosin Y, the obtained photocatalysts achieved remarkably enhanced H2-production activity (about 4.2 times of that for Eosin Y-sensitized P25) and stability under visible-light irradiation. The improved photocatalytic performance was synergistically caused by the enhanced Eosin Y sensitization (due to the enlarged surface area and electropositively modified surface), the optimized crystal structure (well-crystallized anatase phase), and the unique micro/nanostructure (nanosheet-stacked hollow spheres). This work presented an effective route to explore new visible-light-driven H2-production photocatalysts by coupling nanomaterials with special morphologies and metal-free dyes with visible-light absorption.
    Journal of Nanoparticle Research 06/2015; 17(6). DOI:10.1007/s11051-015-3057-7 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    • "3.2 eV and the fast charge recombination. Various approaches to overcome such limitations have been attempted including doping [7], sensitization [8], and surface B. Ahmmad is with Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510, Japan (phone: +81-238-26- 3309; fax: +81-238-26-3309; e-mail: K. Kanomata and F. Hirose are also with Graduate School of Science and "
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of carbon materials on TiO 2 for the photocatalytic hydrogen gas production from water / alcohol mixtures was investigated. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), carbon nanofiber (CNF), fullerene (FLN), graphite (GP), and graphite silica (GS) were used as co-catalysts by directly mixing with TiO 2. Drastic synergy effects were found with increase in the amount of hydrogen gas by a factor of ca. 150 and 100 for SWNTs and GS with TiO 2 , respectively. Moreover, the increment factor of hydrogen production reached to 180, when the mixture of SWNTs and TiO 2 were smashed in an agate mortar before photocatalytic reactions. The order of H 2 gas production for these carbon materials was SWNTs > GS >> MWNTs > FLN > CNF > GP. To maximize the hydrogen production from SWNTs/TiO 2 , various parameters of experimental condition were changed. Also, a comparison between Pt/TiO 2 , SWNTs/TiO 2 and GS/TiO 2 was made for the amount of H 2 gas production. Finally, the recyclability of SWNTs/TiO 2 or GS/TiO 2 was tested.
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