Novel 3′-O-Fluorescently Modified Nucleotides for Reversible Termination of DNA Synthesis

Life Sciences Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, Seoul, Korea.
ChemBioChem (Impact Factor: 3.06). 01/2009; 11(1):75-8. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200900632
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies recently developed are now used for study of genomes from various organisms. Sequencing-by-synthesis (SBS) is a key strategy in the NGS. The SBS uses nucleotides so-called dual-modified reversible terminators (DRTs) in which bases are labeled with fluorophores and 3'-OH is protected with a reversibly cleavable chemical group, respectively. In this study, we examined the possibility of performing SBS with mono-modified reversible terminators (MRTs), in which the reversible blocking group on the 3'-OH plays a dual role as a fluorescent signal report as well as a chemical protection. We studied cyclic reversible termination by using two MRTs (dA and dT), wherein the modifications were two different fluorophores and cleavable to regenerate a free 3'-OH. We here demonstrated that SBS could be achieved with incorporation of MRTs by a DNA polymerase and correct base-calls based on the two different colors from the fluorophores.
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    ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic chromatin is composed of nucleosomes, which contain nearly two coils of DNA wrapped around a central histone octamer. The octamer contains an H3-H4 tetramer and two H2A-H2B dimers. Gene activation is associated with chromatin disruption: a wider nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) at the promoter and reduced nucleosome occupancy over the coding region. Here, we examine the nature of disrupted chromatin after induction, using MNase-seq to map nucleosomes and subnucleosomes, and a refined high-resolution ChIP-seq method to map H4, H2B and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) genome-wide. Over coding regions, induced genes show a differential loss of H2B relative to H4, which correlates with Pol II density and the appearance of subnucleosomes. After induction, Pol II is surprisingly low at the promoter, but accumulates on the gene and downstream of the termination site, implying that dissociation is very slow. Thus, induction-dependent chromatin disruption reflects both eviction of H2A-H2B dimers and the presence of queued Pol II elongation complexes. We propose that slow Pol II dissociation after transcription is a major factor in chromatin disruption and that it may be of critical importance in gene regulation.
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    ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotides composed of natural nucleotides are inapplicable for biotechnical and therapeutic use due to its instability under biological conditions. Therminator DNA polymerases, mutant DNA polymerases of thermophilic marine archaea, show that they can efficiently synthesize fully 2'-fluoro-modified (2'F-) oligonucleotides. Furthermore, the sequence analysis reveals that the oligonucleotide sequence is highly accurate, especially the fidelity of a 2'F-oligonucleotide synthesized by Therminator II is more accurate than that of natural RNA synthesized by conventional RNA polymerase. These finding would be helpful for the synthesis of chemically modified oligonucleotides, for the use of biotechnical or medical applications.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 03/2014; 24(9). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.03.035 · 2.33 Impact Factor