[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA sequencing by synthesis (SBS) on a solid surface during polymerase reaction offers a paradigm to decipher DNA sequences. We report here the construction of such a DNA sequencing system using molecular engineering approaches. In this approach, four nucleotides (A, C, G, T) are modified as reversible terminators by attaching a cleavable fluorophore to the base and capping the 3'-OH group with a small chemically reversible moiety so that they are still recognized by DNA polymerase as substrates. We found that an allyl moiety can be used successfully as a linker to tether a fluorophore to 3'-O-allyl-modified nucleotides, forming chemically cleavable fluorescent nucleotide reversible terminators, 3'-O-allyl-dNTPs-allyl-fluorophore, for application in SBS. The fluorophore and the 3'-O-allyl group on a DNA extension product, which is generated by incorporating 3'-O-allyl-dNTPs-allyl-fluorophore in a polymerase reaction, are removed simultaneously in 30 s by Pd-catalyzed deallylation in aqueous buffer solution. This one-step dual-deallylation reaction thus allows the reinitiation of the polymerase reaction and increases the SBS efficiency. DNA templates consisting of homopolymer regions were accurately sequenced by using this class of fluorescent nucleotide analogues on a DNA chip and a four-color fluorescent scanner.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2007; 103(52):19635-40. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA sequence represents a single format onto which a broad range of biological phenomena can be projected for high-throughput data collection. Over the past three years, massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms have become widely available, reducing the cost of DNA sequencing by over two orders of magnitude, and democratizing the field by putting the sequencing capacity of a major genome center in the hands of individual investigators. These new technologies are rapidly evolving, and near-term challenges include the development of robust protocols for generating sequencing libraries, building effective new approaches to data-analysis, and often a rethinking of experimental design. Next-generation DNA sequencing has the potential to dramatically accelerate biological and biomedical research, by enabling the comprehensive analysis of genomes, transcriptomes and interactomes to become inexpensive, routine and widespread, rather than requiring significant production-scale efforts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyrosequencing is a method used to sequence DNA by detecting the pyrophosphate (PPi) group that is generated when a nucleotide is incorporated into the growing DNA strand in polymerase reaction. However, this method has an inherent difficulty in accurately deciphering the homopolymeric regions of the DNA templates. We report here the development of a method to solve this problem by using nucleotide reversible terminators. These nucleotide analogues are modified with a reversible chemical moiety capping the 3'-OH group to temporarily terminate the polymerase reaction. In this way, only one nucleotide is incorporated into the growing DNA strand even in homopolymeric regions. After detection of the PPi for sequence determination, the 3'-OH of the primer extension products is regenerated through different deprotection methods. Using an allyl or a 2-nitrobenzyl group as the reversible moiety to cap the 3'-OH of the four nucleotides, we have synthesized two sets of 3'-O-modified nucleotides, 3'-O-allyl-dNTPs and 3'-O-(2-nitrobenzyl)-dNTPs as reversible terminators for pyrosequencing. The capping moiety on the 3'-OH of the DNA extension product is efficiently removed after PPi detection by either a chemical method or photolysis. To sequence DNA, templates containing homopolymeric regions are immobilized on Sepharose beads, and then extension-signal detection-deprotection cycles are conducted by using the nucleotide reversible terminators on the DNA beads to unambiguously decipher the sequence of DNA templates. Our results establish that this reversible-terminator-pyrosequencing approach can be potentially developed into a powerful methodology to accurately determine DNA sequences.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2007; 104(42):16462-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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