Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention for Substance Use Disorders: A Pilot Efficacy Trial

Addictive Behaviors Research Center, Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Substance Abuse (Impact Factor: 1.62). 10/2009; 30(4):295-305. DOI: 10.1080/08897070903250084
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The current study is the first randomized-controlled trial evaluating the feasibility and initial efficacy of an 8-week outpatient Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP) program as compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Participants were 168 adults with substance use disorders who had recently completed intensive inpatient or outpatient treatment. Assessments were administered pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2 and 4 months post-intervention. Feasibility of MBRP was demonstrated by consistent homework compliance, attendance, and participant satisfaction. Initial efficacy was supported by significantly lower rates of substance use in those who received MBRP as compared to those in TAU over the 4-month post-intervention period. Additionally, MBRP participants demonstrated greater decreases in craving, and increases in acceptance and acting with awareness as compared to TAU. Results from this initial trial support the feasibility and initial efficacy of MBRP as an aftercare approach for individuals who have recently completed an intensive treatment for substance use disorders.

Download full-text


Available from: Susan E Collins, Aug 26, 2015
    • "To test the hypothesized reductions in behaviors, we followed studies that compared a specific amount of time prior to treatment to the same amount of time after completion (Bowen et al., 2009; Wupperman et al., 2012). Table 1 provides the means and standard deviations for the primary variables across time. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives Disorders of behavioral dysregulation often involve more than one dsyregulated behavior (e.g., drug abuse and aggression, alcohol abuse and gambling). The high co-occurrence suggests the need of a transdiagnostic treatment that can be customized to target multiple specific behaviors.Method The current pilot study compared a 20-week, individual transdiagnostic therapy (mindfulness and modification therapy [MMT]) versus treatment as usual (TAU) in targeting alcohol problems, drug use, physical aggression, and verbal aggression in self-referred women. Assessments were administered at baseline, post-intervention, and 2-month follow-up.ResultsWilcoxon signed-ranked tests and multilevel modeling showed that MMT (n = 13) displayed (a) significant and large decreases in alcohol/drug use, physical aggression, and verbal aggression; (b) significantly greater decreases in alcohol/drug use and physical aggression than did TAU (n = 8); and (c) minimal-to-no deterioration of effects at follow-up. Both conditions showed significant decreases in verbal aggression, with no statistically significant difference between conditions. MMT also displayed greater improvements in mindfulness.Conclusions Preliminary findings support the feasibility and efficacy of MMT in decreasing multiple dysregulated behaviors.
    Journal of Clinical Psychology 09/2015; in press. DOI:10.1002/jclp.22213 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Aunque la gran mayoría de los estudios que han evaluado la aplicabilidad y eficacia de MBI en problemas de dependencia al alcohol se han enfocado en población adulta (p.ej. Bowen et al., 2009; Brewer, Bowen, Smith, Marlatt y Potenza , 2010; Zgierska et al., 2009), existe evidencia de la aplicación de mindfulness en adolescentes con problemas de consumo excesivo de alcohol. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: El consumo problemático de alcohol en jóvenes se ha asociado con graves consecuencias sociales, de salud y económicas, generando enormes costos para los sistemas de la salud. Diversos estudios muestran que cuanto más temprano comienza el uso de sustancias, mayor es la probabilidad de desarrollar un trastorno de consumo de sustancias en la adultez. Sin embargo, esta relación se encuentra mediada por diversos factores de riesgo tanto contextuales (p.ej., historia de alcoholismo familiar) como individuales (p.ej., descontrol de impulsos). Los programas de prevención van dirigidos fundamentalmente a tratar de disminuir el consumo problemático y los daños de un consumo existente. Entre las aproximaciones psicológicas que mayor desarrollo han tenido en los últimos años se encuentran las intervenciones basadas en mindfulness (MBI) o también denominadas terapias-cognitivo conductuales de tercera generación. Recientemente las MBI se han utilizado en el tratamiento de la dependencia de sustancias. No obstante, son escasos los estudios que analizan el rol que mindfulness puede desempeñar a nivel de prevención sobre los factores asociados a un consumo de alcohol de riesgo y de los problemas asociados con este consumo en adolescentes.
    Psychology, Society, & Education 01/2015; 7(1):57-69.
  • Source
    • "Emerging empirical evidence suggests that mindfulness strategies are effective at managing cravings. For instance, interventions using mindfulness exercises have been shown to be effective at reducing food cravings (Alberts, Mulkens, Smeets, & Thewissen, 2010; Alberts, Thewissen, & Raes, 2012; Forman et al., 2007) as well as substance-use cravings (Bowen et al., 2009; Witkiewitz, Bowen, Douglas, & Hsu, 2012). Alberts et al. (2012) found that compared with a wait-list control group, women with disordered eating behaviours who participated in an eight-week mindfulness-based intervention reported a significant reduction in food cravings after the intervention. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is accumulating evidence that mindfulness-based interventions are useful in reducing food cravings. However, existing studies have applied many mindfulness skills together, rendering it unclear which skills are essential and which are unnecessary. Based on recent investigations into the efficacy of individual mindfulness skills at managing cravings, the goal of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two-week mindfulness-based interventions, targeting different combinations of specific mindfulness skills (awareness, acceptance, disidentification), at reducing trait and state chocolate cravings. We compared the efficacy of the mindfulness interventions to an active control intervention (distraction). Overall, disidentification emerged as the most efficacious mindfulness skill. After two weeks of practice, those trained in disidentification reported less intense state cravings after a craving induction task compared with those trained in distraction. Mediation analyses revealed that this effect was mediated first by a greater increase in the disidentification skill, and subsequently by a greater decrease in trait chocolate cravings. Manipulation checks revealed that training the disidentification skill was more successful than training the other skills. Disidentification is shown to be a crucial mindfulness skill that can be taught to help better cope with food cravings.
    Appetite 05/2014; 76:101–112. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.01.072 · 2.69 Impact Factor
Show more