[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GlmU) is a cytoplasmic bifunctional enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the nucleotide-activated UDP-GlcNAc, which is an essential precursor for the biosynthetic pathways of peptidoglycan and other components in bacteria. The crystal structure of a truncated form of GlmU has been solved at 2.25 A resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion technique and its function tested with mutagenesis studies. The molecule is composed of two distinct domains connected by a long alpha-helical arm: (i) an N-terminal domain which resembles the dinucleotide-binding Rossmann fold; and (ii) a C-terminal domain which adopts a left-handed parallel beta-helix structure (LbetaH) as found in homologous bacterial acetyltransferases. Three GlmU molecules assemble into a trimeric arrangement with tightly packed parallel LbetaH domains, the long alpha-helical linkers being seated on top of the arrangement and the N-terminal domains projected away from the 3-fold axis. In addition, the 2.3 A resolution structure of the GlmU-UDP-GlcNAc complex reveals the structural bases required for the uridyltransferase activity. These structures exemplify a three-dimensional template for the development of new antibacterial agents and for studying other members of the large family of XDP-sugar bacterial pyrophosphorylases.
The EMBO Journal 09/1999; 18(15):4096-107. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The physiological properties of the EcoURF-1 open reading frame, which precedes the glmS gene at 84 min on the Escherichia coli chromosome (J. E. Walker, N. J. Gay, M. Saraste, and A. N. Eberle, Biochem. J. 224:799-815, 1984), were investigated. A thermosensitive conditional mutant in which the synthesis of the gene product was impaired at 43 degrees C was constructed. The inactivation of the gene in exponentially growing cells rapidly inhibited peptidoglycan synthesis. As a result, various alterations of cell shape were observed, and cell lysis finally occurred when the peptidoglycan content was 37% lower than that of normally growing cells. Analysis of the pools of peptidoglycan precursors revealed a large accumulation of N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate and the concomitant depletion of the pools of the seven peptidoglycan nucleotide precursors located downstream in the pathway, a result indicating that the mutational block was in the step leading from N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate and UTP to the formation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. In vitro assays showed that the overexpression of this gene in E. coli cells, directed by appropriate plasmids, led to a high overproduction (from 25- to 410-fold) of N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase activity. This allowed us to purify this enzyme to homogeneity in only two chromatographic steps. The gene for this enzyme, which is essential for peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide biosyntheses, was designated glmU.
Journal of Bacteriology 11/1993; 175(19):6150-7. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glycosylation of serine and threonine residues with a single GlcNAc moiety is a dynamic posttranslational modification of many nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. We describe a chemical strategy directed toward identifying O-GlcNAc-modified proteins from living cells or proteins modified in vitro. We demonstrate, in vitro, that each enzyme in the hexosamine salvage pathway, and the enzymes that affect this dynamic modification (UDP-GlcNAc:polypeptidtyltransferase and O-GlcNAcase), tolerate analogues of their natural substrates in which the N-acyl side chain has been modified to bear a bio-orthogonal azide moiety. Accordingly, treatment of cells with N-azidoacetylglucosamine results in the metabolic incorporation of the azido sugar into nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. These O-azidoacetylglucosamine-modified proteins can be covalently derivatized with various biochemical probes at the site of protein glycosylation by using the Staudinger ligation. The approach was validated by metabolic labeling of nuclear pore protein p62, which is known to be posttranslationally modified with O-GlcNAc. This strategy will prove useful for both the identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins and the elucidation of the specific residues that bear this saccharide.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2003; 100(16):9116-21. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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