Smoking cessation for hospitalized smokers: an evaluation of the "Ottawa Model".
ABSTRACT Interventions for hospitalized smokers can increase long-term smoking cessation rates. The Ottawa Model for Smoking Cessation (the "Ottawa Model") is an application of the "5 A's" approach to cessation, customized to the hospital setting. This study evaluated the impact of implementing the Ottawa Model in 9 hospitals in eastern Ontario.
The RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework was used to evaluate the intervention. Trained outreach facilitators assisted 9 hospitals to implement the Ottawa Model; program delivery was then monitored over a 1-year period using administrative data and data from a follow-up database. A before-and-after study was conducted to gauge the effect of the Ottawa Model program on cessation rates 6 months after hospitalization. Self-reports of smoking cessation were biochemically confirmed in a random sample of patients, and all cessation rates were corrected for potential misreporting.
Sixty-nine percent of the expected number of smokers received the Ottawa Model intervention. Controlling for hospital, the confirmed 6-month continuous abstinence rate was higher after, than before, introduction of the Ottawa Model (29.4% vs. 18.3%; odds ratio = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.11-2.64; Z = 2.43; I(2) = 0%; p = .02). The intervention was more likely to accomplish counseling for smokers than delivery of medications or postdischarge follow-up. Attitudinal, managerial, and environmental challenges to program implementation were identified.
Trained outreach facilitators successfully implemented the Ottawa Model in 9 hospitals leading to significantly higher long-term cessation rates. The public health implications of systematic cessation programs for hospitalized smokers are profound.
SourceAvailable from: Cristina Martínez[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spain has passed two smoke-free laws in the last years. In 2005, the law banned smoking in indoor places, and in 2010 the ban was extended to outdoor areas of certain premises such as hospitals. This study assesses the impact of smoking consumption among hospital workers at a comprehensive cancer center after the passage of two national smoke-free laws. Six cross-sectional surveys were conducted among a representative sample of hospital workers at a comprehensive cancer center in Barcelona (2001-2012) using a standardized questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compare differences in the odds of smoking after the laws took effect (baseline vs. 1st law; 2nd law vs. 1st law). Baseline smoking prevalence was 33.1%. After passage of the 1st and 2nd laws, prevalence decreased, respectively, to 30.5% and 22.2% (p for trend =0.005). Prevalence ratios (PR) indicated a significant decrease in overall smoking after the 2nd law (PR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.47-0-89). Smoking dropped in all professional groups, more prominently among those >=35 years old, doctors, and women. Observed trends over the time included an increase in occasional smokers, a rise in abstinence during working hours but an increase in smoking dependence, and an increase in the employees' overall support for the smoke-free hospital project. A long-term tobacco control project combined with two smoke-free national laws reduced smoking rates among health workers and increased their support for tobacco control policies. The decrease was more significant after the passage of the outdoor smoke-free ban.BMC Public Health 11/2014; 14(1):1228. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1228 · 2.32 Impact Factor
Canadian respiratory journal: journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society 02/2015; · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The provision of smoking cessation interventions in hospitals has been strongly recommended. The aim of this study is to determine the maintenance of smoking cessation programmes for inpatients and hospital workers in hospitals of Catalonia (Spain) seven years after the implementation of a Tobacco Cessation Programme. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all hospitals that offer public service in Catalonia, Spain (n=73). An online questionnaire was sent to all coordinators of the smoke-free hospital project or managers of each hospital. The survey included questions about the type of hospital, type of programmes implemented and availability and source of smoking cessation drugs. Responses to the questionnaire were submitted by 58 hospitals (79.5%). 74% and 93.1% of the hospitals had smoking cessation programmes for inpatients and workers, respectively. Most of the hospitals maintained the programmes and started routinely buying smoking cessation drugs after a period of receiving them free-of-charge. However, 17.2% of the hospitals refused to buy these drugs and 24% never had these drugs available. Through a supportive Tobacco Cessation Programme, most hospitals have smoking cessation programmes for both patients and workers. Most of them have incorporated smoking cessation drugs as a regular resource in their services' portfolio. The lack of these resources may jeopardise the maintenance of well-established programmes in hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Addictive Behaviors 11/2014; 42C:136-139. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.11.028 · 2.44 Impact Factor