Children with Special Physical Health Care Needs: Restraint Use and Injury Risk in Motor Vehicle Crashes
ABSTRACT Physical disabilities may affect a child passenger's fit within a conventional motor vehicle restraint. The aim of this study is to describe and compare injury risk in motor vehicle crashes (MVC) among children with and without special physical health care needs (SPHCN). This analysis, conducted in 2007-2008, utilizes data collected between December 1998 and November 2002 in a cross-sectional study of children ≤15 years old involved in crashes of State-Farm insured vehicles in 15 states and the District of Columbia. Parent reports via telephone survey were used to define pre-crash SPHCN, restraint status, and occurrence of significant injuries using a validated survey. Complete data were collected for 18,852 children aged 0-15 years; 159 children were reported to have a SPHCN (0.8% and 0.7% of children aged 0-8 and 9-15 years, respectively). A greater proportion of children with SPHCN aged 0-8 years were appropriately restrained (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in restraint use among children with and without SPHCN aged 9-15 years. There was no significant association between the presence of a SPHCN and injury risk in either age group, after adjustment for child/driver characteristics (children aged 0-8 years: OR 1.27, 95% CI: 0.48-3.33; children aged 9-15 years: OR 1.51, 95% CI: 0.38-6.11). Children with and without SPHCN have similar injury risk in MVC, despite increased age-appropriate restraint usage among children aged 0-8 years. When counseling families about vehicle safety, practitioners should consider the fit of a child with SPHCN in a restraint system.
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ABSTRACT: Special health care needs associated with behavioral conditions may influence a child's safety in motor vehicle crashes. The aim of this study was to describe and compare variation in restraint use, seating position, and injury risk in motor vehicle crashes among children with and without special health care needs likely to affect behavior. This study uses data collected between December 1, 1998, and November 30, 2002, in a cross-sectional study of children <16 years of age who were involved in crashes of State Farm-insured vehicles in 15 states. Parent reports via a validated telephone survey were used to define precrash special health care needs, restraint status, seating position, and the occurrence of clinically significant injuries by using a previously validated survey instrument. Complete data were collected for 14654 children aged 4 to 15 years, representing 171633 children in crashes. Of these, 152 children were reported to have a special need likely to affect behavior, representing 1883 children. A greater proportion of children with special needs likely to affect behavior were appropriately restrained, particularly among children aged 4 to 8 years. Drivers of children with special needs likely to affect behavior were more often restrained and more often were the child passenger's parent. There were no differences in the rates of front-row seating. There was no significant association between the presence of a special need likely to affect behavior and risk of injury, after adjustment for child/driver characteristics and crash severity. Despite a greater proportion of children with special needs likely to affect behavior using proper vehicle restraint, their injury risk was similar to that of children without these special needs. Primary care pediatricians providing best practices for vehicle safety should consider the unique riding experience and risk of injury among children with special health care needs likely to affect behavior.PEDIATRICS 02/2009; 123(2):518-23. DOI:10.1542/peds.2008-0092 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diminished bone density and a propensity to fracture with minimal trauma are common in children and adolescents with moderate to severe cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) and metabolism in this population and to assess the relationship of these measures to multiple other clinical, growth, and nutrition variables. The study group consisted of 117 subjects ages 2 to 19 years (mean: 9.7 years) with moderate to severe CP as defined by the Gross Motor Functional Classification scale. Population-based sampling was used to recruit 62 of the participants, which allows for estimations of prevalence. The remaining 55 subjects were a convenience sampling from both hospital- and school-based sources. The evaluation included measures of BMD, a detailed anthropometric assessment of growth and nutritional status, medical and surgical history, the Child Health Status Questionnaire, and multiple serum analyses. BMD was measured in the distal femur, a site specifically developed for use in this contracted population, and the lumbar spine. BMD measures were converted to age and gender normalized z scores based on our own previously published control series (n > 250). Osteopenia (BMD z score <-2.0) was found in the femur of 77% of the population-based cohort and in 97% of all study participants who were unable to stand and were older than 9 years. BMD was not as low in the lumbar spine (population-based cohort mean +/- standard error z score: -1.8 +/- 0.1) as in the distal femur (mean z score: -3.1 +/- 0.2). Fractures had occurred in 26% of the children who were older than 10 years. Multiple clinical and nutritional variables correlated with BMD z scores, but interpretation of these findings is complicated by covariance among variables. In stepwise regression analyses, it was found that severity of neurologic impairment as graded by Gross Motor Functional Classification level, increasing difficulty feeding the child, use of anticonvulsants, and lower triceps skinfold z scores (in decreasing order of importance) all independently contribute to lower BMD z scores in the femur. Low BMD is prevalent in children with moderate to severe CP and is associated with significant fracture risk. The underlying pathophysiology is complex, with multiple factors contributing to the problem and significant variation between different regions of the skeleton.PEDIATRICS 07/2002; 110(1 Pt 1):e5. DOI:10.1542/peds.110.1.e5 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the extent to which child restraint system (CRS) misuse can be evaluated by parental survey. A cross sectional survey was conducted at eight CRS clinics from May to October, 1998. Before CRS inspection, parents were administered a structured interview to identify distinct characteristics of restraint use and misuse. After the interview, a certified child passenger safety technician team independently evaluated the restraint system and identified specific modes of misuse. Parent descriptions of CRS use were compared with observations of the technician and the degree of agreement between the two was assessed for several specific attributes of use. A total of 100 children restrained in convertible CRSs were included in the study. Parents were able to accurately report several aspects of child restraint use-in particular, the attachment and fit of the CRS, the use of the harness clip, and the CRS incline. Parents were less accurate in their characterization of the fit of the child in the CRS. For nearly every item assessed, parents were more accurate in their description of correct compared with incorrect use. Interview tools can be developed that enable parents to describe aspects of CRS use and that screen for correct CRS use. These tools could be administered by telephone to obtain a more representative estimate of the prevalence of CRS misuse or to screen for CRS misuse. This screening would assist in targeting time consuming and costly CRS clinics to those parents who need them the most.Injury Prevention 07/2000; 6(2):145-7. · 1.89 Impact Factor