Two-year body composition analyses of long-lived GHR null mice.
ABSTRACT Growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-/-) mice exhibit increased life span and adipose tissue mass. Although this obese phenotype has been reported extensively for young adult male GHR-/- mice, data for females and for other ages in either gender are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate body composition longitudinally in both male and female GHR-/- mice. Results show that GHR-/- mice have a greater percent fat mass with no significant difference in absolute fat mass throughout life. Lean mass shows an opposite trend with percent lean mass not significantly different between genotypes but absolute mass reduced in GHR-/- mice. Differences in body composition are more pronounced in male than in female mice, and both genders of GHR-/- mice show specific enlargement of the subcutaneous adipose depot. Along with previously published data, these results suggest a consistent and intriguing protective effect of excess fat mass in the subcutaneous region.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Patrick M O'Connor, Sep 09, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about how diet and energy metabolism interact in determination of lifespan under ad libitum feeding. From 12 weeks of age until death, male and female wild-type (WT) and transgenic (TG) mice with increased skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling (HSA-mUCP1 mice) were fed one of three different semisynthetic diets differing in macronutrient ratio: control (high-carbohydrate/low-fat-HCLF) and two high-fat diets: high-carbohydrate/high-fat (HCHF), and low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LCHF). Compared to control and LCHF, HCHF feeding rapidly and significantly increased body fat content in WT. Median lifespan of WT was decreased by 33% (HCHF) and 7% (LCHF) compared to HCLF. HCHF significantly increased insulin resistance (HOMA) of WT from 24 weeks on compared to control. TG mice had lower lean body mass and increased energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, and maximum lifespan (+10%) compared to WT. They showed a delayed development of obesity on HCHF but reached similar maximum adiposity as WT. TG median lifespan was only slightly reduced by HCHF (-7%) and unaffected by LCHF compared to control. Correlation analyses showed that decreased longevity was more strongly linked to a high rate of fat gain than to adiposity itself. Furthermore, insulin resistance was negatively and weight-specific energy expenditure was positively correlated with longevity. We conclude that (i) dietary macronutrient ratios strongly affected obesity development, glucose homeostasis, and longevity, (ii) that skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling alleviated the detrimental effects of high-fat diets, and (iii) that early imbalances in energy homeostasis leading to increased insulin resistance are predictive for a decreased lifespan.Aging cell 11/2010; 10(1):122-36. DOI:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2010.00648.x · 5.94 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Self-tuning LQG control subject to input constraints; robustnessaspects[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Toivonen proposed (1983) a suboptimal stochastic control algorithm for discrete-time stochastic systems subjected to amplitude-constrained input. The key idea of this algorithm is the approximation of the stationary probability density function (PDF) of the state by the Gaussian PDF. The gradient of the cost function is then used to derive the iterative procedure for calculation of the stationary feedback gain. In this paper, this approach is extended to the LQG self-tuning tracking control problem of stochastic ARMAX system with constant or piecewise constant set-pointAmerican Control Conference, 1998. Proceedings of the 1998; 07/1998
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ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that cardiac morphologic differences between Ames dwarf and wild-type littermates might correlate with the increased longevity observed in the Ames dwarf mice. Hearts removed from young adult (5-7 mo) and old (24-28 mo) Ames dwarf and wild-type littermates underwent histological and morphometric analysis. Measurements of cell size, nuclear size, and collagen content were made using computerized color deconvolution and particle analysis methodology. In the young mice at six months of age, mean cardiomyocyte area was 46% less in Ames dwarf than in wild-type mice (p<0.0001). Cardiomyocyte size increased with age by about 52% in the wild-type mice and 44% in the Ames dwarf mice (p<0.001). There was no difference in nuclear size of the cardiomyocytes between the young adult wild-type and Ames dwarf mice. There was an age-associated increase in the cardiomyocyte nuclear size by approximately 50% in both the Ames and wild-type mice (p<0.001). The older Ames dwarf mice had slightly larger cardiomyocyte nuclei compared to wild-type (2%, p<0.05). The collagen content of the hearts in young adult Ames dwarf mice was estimated to be 57% less compared to wild-type littermates (p<0.05). Although collagen content of both Ames dwarf and wild-type mouse hearts increased with age, there was no significant difference at 24 months. In wild-type and Ames dwarf mice, nuclear size, cardiomyocyte size, and collagen content increased with advancing age. While cardiomyocyte size was much reduced in young and old Ames dwarf mice compared with wild-type, collagen content was reduced only in the young adult mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ames dwarf mice may receive some longevity benefit from the reduced cardiomyocyte cell size and a period of reduced collagen content in the heart during adulthood.International journal of biological sciences 01/2010; 6(5):475-90. · 4.37 Impact Factor