Leisure Time Sedentary Behavior, Occupational/Domestic Physical Activity, and Metabolic Syndrome in U.S. Men and Women

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808, USA.
Metabolic syndrome and related disorders (Impact Factor: 1.98). 11/2009; 7(6):529-36. DOI: 10.1089/met.2009.0023
Source: PubMed


This study examines leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB) and usual occupational/domestic activity (UODA) and their relationship with metabolic syndrome and individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, independent of physical activity level.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006 data from men (n = 1868) and women (n = 1688) with fasting measures were classified as having metabolic syndrome by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) definition. LTSB was determined from self-reported television viewing and computer usage. UODA was self-reported daily behavior (sitting, standing, walking, carrying loads).
LTSB >or=4 hours/day was associated with odds of having metabolic syndrome of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24, 3.03) in men compared to <or=1 hour/day. LTSB >or=4 hour/day was also associated with higher odds of elevated waist circumference (1.88, CI, 1.03, 3.41), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (1.84, CI, 1.35, 2.51), and high blood pressure (1.55, CI, 1.07, 2.24) in men. LTSB 2-3 hours/day was associated with higher odds of elevated glucose (1.32, CI, 1.00, 1.75) in men. In women, odds of metabolic syndrome were 1.54 (CI, 1.00, 2.37) with >or=4 hours/day LTSB, but LTSB was not associated with risk of the individual CVD risk factors. Higher LTSB was associated with metabolic syndrome in inactive men (1.50, CI, 1.07, 2.09), active men (1.74, CI, 1.11, 2.71), inactive women (1.69, CI, 1.24, 2.33), but not active women (1.62, CI, 0.87,3.01). UODA was not strongly associated with metabolic syndrome or CVD risk factors in either men or women.
In men, high LTSB is associated with higher odds of metabolic syndrome and individual CVD risk factors regardless of meeting physical activity recommendations. In women, high LTSB is associated with higher odds of metabolic syndrome only in those not meeting the physical activity recommendations.

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    • "An established research framework, the behavioural epidemiology framework (Marshall and Ramirez, 2011; Owen et al., 2010), was identified to study this relatively new behavioural risk factor in five sequential stages. Within the first two phases (identifying relationships of SB with health; measuring SB), sufficient evidence is available (Atkin et al., 2012; Castillo-Retamal and Hinckson, 2011; Dunstan et al., 2011; Gardiner et al., 2011; George et al., 2010; Healy et al., 2011; Katzmarzyk et al., 2009; Moore et al., 2010; Patel et al., 2010; Proper et al., 2011; Sisson et al., 2009; Stamatakis et al., 2011; Teychenne et al., 2010; Thorp et al., 2010, 2011; van Uffelen et al., 2013; Vandelanotte et al., 2009). However, more research is needed to address the third phase (identifying determinants and correlates of SB), which will in turn inform the fourth (developing and testing interventions to Preventive Medicine 67 (2014) 288–294 ⁎ Corresponding author at: Watersportlaan 2, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To (1) compare occupational sitting between different socio-demographic, health-related, work-related and psychosocial categories, (2) identity socio-demographic, health-related, work-related and psychosocial correlates of occupational sitting, and (3) examine the moderating effect of work-related factors in the relation between correlates and occupational sitting. Methods: Randomly-selected Australian adults completed a web-based survey assessing socio-demographic (country of birth, gender, age, education, income), health-related (general health, weight, physical activity), work-related (employment status, occupational task, occupational classification) and sedentary-specific psychosocial (social norm, social support, self-efficacy, control, advantages, disadvantage, intention) factors, and occupational sitting-time. t-tests, ANOVAs and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted (in 2013) on a sample of employees (n=993). Results: Respondents sat on average for 3.75 (SD=2.45) h/day during work. Investigated correlates explained 41% of the variance in occupational sitting. More occupational sitting was associated with being male, being younger, higher education and income, part-time and full-time employment, sedentary job tasks, white-collar/professional occupations, higher BMI, and perceiving more advantages of sitting less at work. Employment status and occupational classification moderated the association between control to sit less and occupational sitting. A lack of control to sit less was associated with higher occupational sitting in part-time and full-time workers, but not in casual workers; and in white-collar and professional workers, but not in blue-collar workers. Conclusions: Most important contributors to occupational sitting were work-related and socio-demographic correlates. More research is needed to confirm present results.
    Preventive Medicine 08/2014; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.07.031 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "A composite LTSB variable was created by combining responses from the two screen-based sedentary behavior questions similar to a previous investigation by Sisson and colleagues [9]. Reported values were collapsed into two categories (≥ 3 or < 3 hours/day) to facilitate comparisons across varying levels of LTSB and to maintain sufficient sample sizes for all analyses. "
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    ABSTRACT: It remains unclear what people are attempting to communicate, in terms of objectively monitored behavior, when describing their physical activity and sedentary behavior through self-report. The purpose of this study was to examine various objectively monitored accelerometer variables (e.g., moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA], steps/day, sedentary time, etc.) across categories of self-reported MVPA (< 150 vs. >= 150 minutes/week), usual occupational/domestic activity (UODA; "mostly sitting" vs. "stand, walk, lift, or carry"), and leisure-time sedentary behavior (LTSB; >= 3 vs. < 3 hours/day) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (>= 20 years). This is a secondary analysis of 3,725 participants from the 2005--2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) who provided relevant questionnaire responses and >= 1 day of valid accelerometer data. Descriptive statistics were computed for various objectively monitored accelerometer variables across categories of self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB. Pairwise comparisons were conducted to examine differences in objectively monitored behavior between categories of self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB. On average, adults reporting compliance with physical activity guidelines (>= 150 minutes/week of MVPA) accumulated more objectively measured physical activity and similar amounts of sedentary time relative to those reporting not achieving guidelines. Adults reporting their daily UODA as "mostly sitting" or accruing >= 3 hours/day of LTSB accumulated less objectively monitored physical activity and more sedentary time than those who described their UODA as "stand, walk, lift, or carry" or accrued < 3 hours/day of LTSB. The most active cross-classified category (7,935 steps/day; >= 150 minutes/week of self-reported MVPA, "stand, walk, lift, or carry" UODA, and < 3 hours/day of LTSB) accumulated more than twice as many daily steps as the least active cross-classified category (3,532 steps/day; < 150 minutes/week of self-reported MVPA, "mostly sitting" UODA, and >= 3 hours/day of LTSB). A number of objectively monitored physical activity indicators varied significantly between self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB categories, while objectively monitored sedentary time only varied between UODA and LTSB categories. Cross-classifications of self-reported MVPA, UODA, and LTSB responses depict a greater range of physical activity than viewing dichotomous responses for these variables one-at-a-time.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 11/2013; 10(1):126. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-10-126 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    • "While certain lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity [1] and diet [2] have been shown to be inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), recent evidence from cross-sectional studies have also identified time spent in leisure-time sedentary behaviors [3-7] and overall sitting time [8,9] to be independently associated with MetS risk in adults. Sedentary behaviors are a distinct class of behaviors that are characterised primarily by prolonged sitting [10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Television (TV) viewing time is positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. However, the mechanisms through which TV viewing time is associated with MetS risk remain unclear. There is evidence that the consumption of energy-dense, nutrient poor snack foods increases during TV viewing time among adults, suggesting that these behaviors may jointly contribute towards MetS risk. While the association between TV viewing time and the MetS has previously been shown to be independent of adult's overall dietary intake, the specific influence of snack food consumption on the relationship is yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and joint associations of daily TV viewing time and snack food consumption with the MetS and its components in a sample of Australian adults. Population-based, cross-sectional study of 3,110 women and 2,572 men (>35 years) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants were recruited between May 1999 and Dec 2000 in the six states and the Northern Territory of Australia. Participants were categorised according to self-reported TV viewing time (low: 0-2 hr/d; high: >2 hr/d) and/or consumption of snack foods (low: 0-3 serves/d; high: >3 serves/d). Multivariate odds ratios [95% CI] for the MetS and its components were estimated using gender-specific, forced entry logistic regression. OR [95%CI] for the MetS was 3.59 [2.25, 5.74] (<= 0.001) in women and 1.45 [1.02, 3.45] (p = 0.04) in men who jointly reported high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension (women only) were also jointly associated with high TV viewing time and high snack food consumption. Further adjustment for diet quality and central adiposity maintained the associations in women. High snack food consumption was also shown to be independently associated with MetS risk [OR: 1.94 (95% CI: 1.45, 2.60), p < 0.001] and hypertension [OR: 1.43 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.02), p = 0.05] in women only. For both men and women, high TV viewing time was independently associated with the MetS and its individual components (except hypertension). TV viewing time and snack food consumption are independently and jointly associated with the MetS and its components, particularly in women. In addition to physical activity, population strategies targeting MetS prevention should address high TV time and excessive snack food intake.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 08/2013; 10(1):96. DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-10-96 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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