Gender Differences in HIV-Related Sexual Behavior among College Students from Spain and Portugal

Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación, Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad de Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, s/n. 21007 Huelva, Spain.
The Spanish Journal of Psychology (Impact Factor: 0.74). 11/2009; 12(2):485-95. DOI: 10.1017/S1138741600001864
Source: PubMed


Under the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior, the objective of this study was to know the gender differences in the variables involved in the use of effective preventive measures in sexual relations against HIV in a sample of university students from Spain and Portugal. Furthermore, it is examined whether these factors produce different predictions concerning the adoption of safe sexual behaviour for young man and women in each country. The sample consisted of 683 university students, 319 Portuguese (64% female and 36% male) from the University of Algarve and 364 Spanish students (51% female and 49% male) from the University of Huelva. Data were obtained by means of a questionnaire. The data revealed that there are gender differences which apply in both countries, highlighting that the young women have more positive attitudes, greater perceived behavioural control and intention of condom use than young men. However, they protect themselves less that their male counterparts: the percentage of females who say using condoms as a contraceptive method is less than the percentage of males, and especially with their steady partners. The results are discussed in relation to gender role norms, to have a steady partner or not, gender relations, the associated meaning to sexual relations for men and women and their implications for the design of sexual educational programmes for them.

Download full-text


Available from: Cristina Nunes,
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to analyze how worry about sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and HIV influences attitudes and self-efficacy towards condom use, HIV-related knowledge, HIV-perceived susceptibility and HIV-misconceptions in a multicultural sample in Spain. The sample was composed of 3,051 adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years old who lived in Spain. Of these, 67.7% were native Spaniards and the remaining 32.3% were Latin American immigrants. Results showed that worry about STI and HIV has a direct influence on condom use self-efficacy and HIV-knowledge and HIV-perceived susceptibility. Native Spanish adolescents showed higher positive attitudes towards condom use, greater HIV-knowledge and HIV-perceived susceptibility, and lower negative attitudes towards condoms use and HIV-misconceptions than Latin American adolescents. In the discussion, the importance of worry about STI and HIV is highlighted as a mediator variable that can predict risky sexual behavior and is related to cultural origin.
    The Spanish Journal of Psychology 11/2011; 14(2):746-54. DOI:10.5209/rev_SJOP.2011.v14.n2.22 · 0.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper aims to describe the psychometric properties of a new brief multidimensional scale to measure HIV/AIDS related attitudes for adolescents, the HIV Attitudes Scale (HIV-AS). Exploratory analysis aimed to find the theory-driven structure and to develop an empirically derived factor structure for HIV-AS, which was tested with a confirmatory factor analysis. Factorial invariance was studied across gender and age, and multigroup structural equation approach was used in order to compare the groups. Reliability, convergent and discnmmant validity were examined. The analyses were based on a sample of 1216 Spanish adolescents. The instrument consists of 12 items distributed across four major factors: 1) Attitudes towards safe sex when there are obstacles, 2) Attitudes towards the HIV test, 3) Attitudes towards condom use, and 4) Attitudes towards people living with the AIDS. The HIV-AS shows good validity and internal reliability and equivalent four-factor structure across gender and the three age groups studied. It can be consider as a capable and parsimonious self-report scale for assessing major aspects of HIV/AIDS-related attitudes for adolescents.
    Anales de Psicología 01/2013; 29(1):83-89. DOI:10.6018/analesps.29.1.132301 · 0.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The scientific literature suggests that a low self-efficacy for condom use may be related to many risky behaviors for HIV transmission in young people. We analyze the self-efficacy of condom use among youth, the existence of gender differences and the relationship with other relevant variables in HIV prevention. The "Self-Efficacy Condom Use Subscale", included in the AIDS Prevention Questionnaire (Ballester, Gil and Giménez, 2007), was administrated to 3540 university students (50.9% women, 49.1% men). The results showed that the sample obtained medium-high scores on self-efficacy, showing the lowest scores when behavior involves their sexual control at the time of excitation. Statistically significant differences were obtained in different situations according to gender. In this regard, women perceived themselves higher condom use self-efficacy than men, especially when their suggestion about condom use might cause a negative evaluation to the partner; and unless than men those relating to public domain (buying condoms). Moreover, self-efficacy correlated significantly with preventive behavior intention, increased self-reported frequency of condom use and perceived effectiveness of condoms in HIV prevention. Future preventive interventions should include an element of self-efficacy and a differentiated perspective by gender.
    Anales de Psicología 01/2013; 29(1):76-82. DOI:10.6018/analesps.29.1.124601 · 0.50 Impact Factor
Show more