Nod1 and Nod2 direct autophagy by recruiting ATG16L1 to the plasma membrane at the site of bacterial entry.

Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Nature Immunology (Impact Factor: 24.97). 11/2009; 11(1):55-62. DOI: 10.1038/ni.1823
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Autophagy is emerging as a crucial defense mechanism against bacteria, but the host intracellular sensors responsible for inducing autophagy in response to bacterial infection remain unknown. Here we demonstrated that the intracellular sensors Nod1 and Nod2 are critical for the autophagic response to invasive bacteria. By a mechanism independent of the adaptor RIP2 and transcription factor NF-kappaB, Nod1 and Nod2 recruited the autophagy protein ATG16L1 to the plasma membrane at the bacterial entry site. In cells homozygous for the Crohn's disease-associated NOD2 frameshift mutation, mutant Nod2 failed to recruit ATG16L1 to the plasma membrane and wrapping of invading bacteria by autophagosomes was impaired. Our results link bacterial sensing by Nod proteins to the induction of autophagy and provide a functional link between Nod2 and ATG16L1, which are encoded by two of the most important genes associated with Crohn's disease.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterium that can cause serious infection in immunocompromised individuals. Although autophagy may augment immune responses against P. aeruginosa infection in macrophages, the critical components and their role of autophagy in host defense are largely unknown. In this study, we show that P. aeruginosa infection-induced autophagy activates JAK2/STAT1α and increases NO production. Knocking down Atg7 resulted in increased IFN-γ release, excessive reactive oxygen species, and increased Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 activity, which led to lowered phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT1α and subdued expression of NO synthase 2 (NOS2). In addition, we demonstrated the physiological relevance of dysregulated NO under Atg7 deficiency as atg7(-/-) mice were more susceptible to P. aeruginosa infection with increased mortality and severe lung injury than wild-type mice. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa-infected atg7(-/-) mice exhibited increased oxidation but decreased bacterial clearance in the lung and other organs compared with wild-type mice. Mechanistically, atg7 deficiency suppressed NOS2 activity by downmodulating JAK2/STAT1α, leading to decreased NO both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these findings revealed that the JAK2/STAT1α/NOS2 dysfunction leads to dysregulated immune responses and worsened disease phenotypes. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Significant progress in our understanding of Crohn's disease (CD), an archetypal common, complex disease, has now been achieved. Our ability to interrogate the deep complexities of the biological processes involved in maintaining gut mucosal homeostasis is a major over-riding factor underpinning this rapid progress. Key studies now offer many novel and expansive insights into the interacting roles of genetic susceptibility, immune function, and the gut microbiota in CD. Here, we provide overviews of these recent advances and new mechanistic themes, and address the challenges and prospects for translation from concept to clinic.
    04/2015; 7(44). DOI:10.12703/P7-44
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In eukaryotic cells, perturbation of protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, which activates intracellular signaling pathways termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Recent studies have linked ER stress and the UPR to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The microenvironment of the ER is affected by a myriad of intestinal luminal molecules, implicating ER stress and the UPR in proper maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Several intestinal cell populations, including Paneth and goblet cells, require robust ER function for protein folding, maturation, and secretion. Prolonged ER stress and impaired UPR signaling may cause IBD through: (1) induction of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, (2) disruption of mucosal barrier function, and (3) induction of the proinflammatory response in the gut. Based on our increased understanding of ER stress in IBD, new pharmacological approaches can be developed to improve intestinal homeostasis by targeting ER protein-folding in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs).
    Gastroenterology Research and Practice 02/2015; 2015:328791. DOI:10.1155/2015/328791 · 1.50 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014