Previous studies have documented significant international variations in colorectal cancer rates. However, these studies were limited because they were based on old data or examined only incidence or mortality data. In this article, the colorectal cancer burden and patterns worldwide are described using the most recently updated cancer incidence and mortality data available from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The authors provide 5-year (1998-2002), age-standardized colorectal cancer incidence rates for select cancer registries in IARC's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, and trends in age-standardized death rates by single calendar year for select countries in the World Health Organization mortality database. In addition, available information regarding worldwide colorectal cancer screening initiatives are presented. The highest colorectal cancer incidence rates in 1998-2002 were observed in registries from North America, Oceania, and Europe, including Eastern European countries. These high rates are most likely the result of increases in risk factors associated with "Westernization," such as obesity and physical inactivity. In contrast, the lowest colorectal cancer incidence rates were observed from registries in Asia, Africa, and South America. Colorectal cancer mortality rates have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries; however, they continue to increase in some low-resource countries of South America and Eastern Europe. Various screening options for colorectal cancer are available and further international consideration of targeted screening programs and/or recommendations could help alleviate the burden of colorectal cancer worldwide.
"Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, as the third most common cancer in men and the second in women . Although colorectal cancer incidence rates are stabilizing or even declining in historically high-risk areas (United States, New Zealand, and Canada), they are rapidly increasing in several historically low-risk countries (China, Japan, Korea, and Eastern European countries)  . Colorectal cancer mainly results from a series of genetic changes leading to the progressive and irreversible loss of the normal control of cell growth and differentiation . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibody-based imaging agents are attractive as adjuvant diagnostic tools for solid tumors. GPA33 is highly expressed in most human colorectal cancers and has been verified as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. Here, we built an A33scFv-Fc antibody against GPA33 by fusing A33scFv to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 antibodies. The A33scFv-Fc specifically binds GPA33-positive colorectal cancer cells and tumor tissues. After the intravenous injection of mice bearing subcutaneous GPA33-positive LS174T tumor grafts with near-infrared fluorescence probe CF750-labeled A33scFv-Fc (CF750-A33scFv-Fc), high contrast images of the tumor grafts could be kinetically documented within 24 h using an optical imaging system. However, GPA33-negative SMMC7721 tumor grafts could not be visualized by injecting the same amount of CF750-A33scFv-Fc. Moreover, in subcutaneous LS174T tumor-bearing mice, tissue scanning revealed that the CF750-A33scFv-Fc accumulated in the tumor grafts, other than the kidney and liver. In mice with orthotopic tumor transplantations, excrescent LS174T tumor tissues in the colon were successfully removed under guidance by CF750-A33scFv-Fc-based optical imaging. These results indicate that CF750-A33scFv-Fc can target GPA33, suggesting the potential of CF750-A33scFv-Fc as an imaging agent for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.
"Garland et al. demonstrated an inverse correlation between dietary calcium (Ca 2+ ) intake and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), identifying nutritional Ca 2+ as a promising chemopreventive agent . Since then several advances have been made with focus on studies trying to establish risk factors to facilitate suitable intervention in CRC   . "
"CRC is the third most common cancer and the number one cause of nonsmoking cancer-related deaths in the world (Ferlay et al., 2010). Globally, there is a wide variability in the incidence of CRC, with the highest incidence in Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America, and the lowest in Africa and Asia (Center et al., 2009; Jemal et al., 2011). Although developing countries historically have a low rate of CRC, a recent study by Chalya et al. (2013) revealed that CRC is reported to be increasing in resource-limited countries, probably due to the acquisition of a western lifestyle. "
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