A comparison of subtalar joint motion during anticipated medial cutting turns and level walking using a multi-segment foot model

Wolf Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Fowler Kennedy Sport Medicine Clinic, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
Gait & posture (Impact Factor: 2.75). 11/2009; 31(2):153-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.09.016
Source: PubMed


The weight-bearing in-vivo kinematics and kinetics of the talocrural joint, subtalar joint and joints of the foot were quantified using optical motion analysis. Twelve healthy subjects were studied during level walking and anticipated medial turns at self-selected pace. A multi-segment model of the foot using skin-mounted marker triads tracked four foot segments: the hindfoot, midfoot, lateral and medial forefoot. The lower leg and thigh were also tracked. Motion between each of the segments could occur in three degrees of rotational freedom, but only six inter-segmental motions were reported in this study: (1) talocrural dorsi-plantar-flexion, (2) subtalar inversion-eversion, (3) frontal plane hindfoot motion, (4) transverse plane hindfoot motion, (5) forefoot supination-pronation twisting and (6) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch. The motion at the subtalar joint during stance phase of walking (eversion then inversion) was reversed during a turning task (inversion then eversion). The external subtalar joint moment was also changed from a moderate eversion moment during walking to a larger inversion moment during the turn. The kinematics of the talocrural joint and the joints of the foot were similar between these two tasks. During a medial turn, the subtalar joint may act to maintain the motions in the foot and talocrural joint that occur during level walking. This is occurring despite the conspicuously different trajectory of the centre of mass of the body. This may allow the foot complex to maintain its function of energy absorption followed by energy return during stance phase that is best suited to level walking.

3 Reads
  • Source
    • "estimates. The foot actually consists of multiple bodies and joints [28] [29]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe stance foot and ankle kinematics and the associated ground reaction forces at the upper end of human performance in professional football players during commonly performed football-specific tasks. Nine participants were recruited from the spring training squad of a professional football team. In a motion analysis laboratory setting, participants performed three activities used at the NFL Scouting Combine to assess player speed and agility: the 3-cone drill, the shuttle run, and the standing high jump. The talocrural and first metatarsophalangial joint dorsiflexion, subtalar joint inversion, and the ground reaction forces were determined for the load bearing portions of each activity. We documented load-bearing foot and ankle kinematics of elite football players performing competition-simulating activities, and confirmed our hypothesis that the talocrural, subtalar, and metatarsophalangeal joint ranges of motion for the activities studied approached or exceeded reported physiological limits.
    Gait & posture 05/2012; 38(4). DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.03.034 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Impaired control of mediolateral body motion during walking is an important health concern. Developing treatments to improve mediolateral control is challenging, partly because the mechanisms by which muscles modulate mediolateral ground reaction force (and thereby modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center) during unimpaired walking are poorly understood. To investigate this, we examined mediolateral ground reaction forces in eight unimpaired subjects walking at four speeds and determined the contributions of muscles, gravity, and velocity-related forces to the mediolateral ground reaction force by analyzing muscle-driven simulations of these subjects. During early stance (0-6% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the leading foot was directed laterally and increased significantly (p<0.05) with walking speed. During early single support (14-30% gait cycle), peak ground reaction force on the stance foot was directed medially and increased significantly (p<0.01) with speed. Muscles accounted for more than 92% of the mediolateral ground reaction force over all walking speeds, whereas gravity and velocity-related forces made relatively small contributions. Muscles coordinate mediolateral acceleration via an interplay between the medial ground reaction force contributed by the abductors and the lateral ground reaction forces contributed by the knee extensors, plantarflexors, and adductors. Our findings show how muscles that contribute to forward progression and body-weight support also modulate mediolateral acceleration of the body mass center while weight is transferred from one leg to another during double support.
    Journal of Biomechanics 08/2012; 45(14):2438-43. DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.06.037 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study of foot and ankle kinematics is important in clinical cases such as abnormal foot functions and foot deformities. The objective of this study is to investigate kinematics of foot and ankle during stance phase of normal walking. This kinematic study includes joint motions between five rigid foot segments with new reference positions, and four new functional angles for describing physical features of walking. The results show that time-histories of the five joint motions present good agreement with previous literature. The new reference positions perform well for reducing variance among subjects. The results of four functional angles are consistent with gait and can more intuitively describe foot function features with good intra-subject repeatability. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of foot and ankle motions during stance phase of normal walking.
    International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology 12/2012; 45(2/3):126-138. DOI:10.1504/IJCAT.2012.050701
Show more