Acute phase protein changes in calves during an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis
Department of Animal Health and Environment, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 2.02). 11/2009; 34(1):23-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.cimid.2009.10.005
Bovine acute phase proteins (APPs), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were evaluated as inflammatory markers during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves (n = 10) presented mild to moderate signs of respiratory disease. Secondary bacterial infections, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma dispar as major species, were detected in tracheobronchial lavage samples. Concentrations of SAA and LBP increased at week 1 had the highest values at week 3 and decreased at week 4 of outbreak. Some calves had high Hp concentrations at week 3, but AGP concentrations did not rise during respiratory disease. Higher SAA, LBP and Hp concentrations at a later stage of BRD (week 3) were associated with the low BRSV-specific IgG(1) production, suggesting that these calves had enhanced inflammatory response to the secondary bacterial infection. In conclusion, APPs (especially SAA and LBP) are sensitive markers of respiratory infection, and they may be useful to explore host response to the respiratory infections in clinical research.
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- "(2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.06.024 ARTICLE IN PRESS G Model VETPAR-7677; No. of Pages 7 Angen et al., 2009; Kujala et al., 2010; Orro et al., 2011; Pyörälä et al., 2011 "
ABSTRACT: Acute phase proteins (APPs) have been demonstrated to be useful in evaluating general health stress and diseases in cattle. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) are APPs that are produced during inflammation, and likely play a role in host immunological defence against Eimeria infection and the associated intestinal tissue damage. We investigated the involvement of SAA and HP in an experimental study, including three groups of calves: a control group (group 0, n=11), and two groups infected with either 150,000 or 250,000 Eimeria zuernii oocysts (group 1 (n=11) and group 2 (n=12), respectively). The calves were monitored for 28 days and data was collected on oocyst excretion, faecal score, animal weight, and SAA and Hp serum concentrations. Generalized linear mixed models showed that the clinical symptoms, indicated by an increase in the number of oocysts in the faeces and severe diarrhoea, manifested at patency for group 1 and 2. Serum Hp and SAA levels also increased during this period. Hp appeared to be a more sensitive marker than SAA, and differences between groups 1 and 2 were observed only for Hp. Linear regression models showed a negative association between weight gain and Hp concentrations, calculated as the area under the curve (AUC) during the overall experimental period and the patency period. A similar result was seen for SAA only during the patency period. This result supports the assumption that reduced weight gain due to E. zuernii infection is an immunologically driven process that involves an increase in APPs. A random intercept regression model of oocyst shedding groups showed that calves shedding 1-500 oocysts had reduced concentrations of Hp, indicating that a different immunological reaction occurs during mild shedding of E. zuernii oocysts than during more intensive shedding. A similar model was used to examine associations between faecal scores and Hp concentrations for each group. Group 2 calves with haemorrhagic diarrhoea displayed higher Hp levels than calves in that group with lower faecal scores, which may be in response to an increased demand for Hp in the repair process as a result of haemolysis. APPs seem to play an important role in determining the course of E. zuernii infection in calves, which may enhance our understanding of the immunological reaction and development of this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Veterinary Parasitology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.06.024 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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- "The high number of steers with elevated HP values (94%) as opposed to the relatively low numbers of steers above the cutoff for other blood end points resulted in inclusion of HP in the disease definition. The value of HP as a useful clinical parameter to measure the inflammatory response in cattle with BRD has been supported in numerous publications (Godson et al., 1996; Heegaard et al., 2000; Humblet et al., 2004; Orro et al., 2011). The cutoff for HP (0.15 mg/mL) used to define sick steers in the present study has been reported (Buhman et al., 2000) and lies within the range of other publications (Godson et al., 1996; Heegaard et al., 2000; Humblet et al., 2004). "
ABSTRACT: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s non-feeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum and sum, and together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had one or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head and gaunt appearance). While 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least two clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency and mean inter-meal interval time between meals was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P < 0.001). Furthermore, increased mean mealtime, frequency and mean inter-meal interval time between meals were associated with a decreased BRD hazard up to 7 d before feedlot staff noticed clinical symptoms (P < 0.001). In conclusion, mean intake per meal as well as mean meal time and frequency of meals could be used to predict the hazard of BRD in feedlot cattle 7 d before visual detection and could be considered in commercial feedlot settings once a predictive algorithm has been developed.Journal of Animal Science 11/2014; 93(1). DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-8030 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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- "Exkersall et al. 2001, Vet Res, 148(2): 35–41;  Stenfeldt et al. 2011, Vet Res, 42(1): 66–75;  Orro et al. 2011, "
ABSTRACT: Acute phase and inflammatory responses are triggered by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors that come at a cost through suppressing the normal function of tissues and organs of domestic animals. Recently, with growing attention placed on global warming and animal welfare, there has been an increased interest in improving our understanding of the relationships between different classes of stress, the expression of acute phase proteins (APPs), the stress-related endocrine system and immunomodulation. Immune function is compromised by all forms of stress including poor nutrition, weaning, extreme thermal conditions, injury and infection in calves. Proinflammatory cytokines, APPs and hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis as well as the composition of immune cells can all be characterised in culture supernatants and peripheral blood. APPs have been used as biomarkers for the stress status of ruminants both experimentally and in field studies. Therefore detailed studies of the mechanisms of action of these APPs and their interactions in ameliorating different stress responses are warranted. The focus of this review is on the aetiology of the responses in calves under severe stress and its impact on growth and immune status. Possible strategies to alleviate this condition including the role of specific feed additives are presented.Animal Production Science 01/2014; 54(10):1561. DOI:10.1071/AN14441 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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