Acute phase protein changes in calves during an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus.
ABSTRACT Bovine acute phase proteins (APPs), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were evaluated as inflammatory markers during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves (n = 10) presented mild to moderate signs of respiratory disease. Secondary bacterial infections, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma dispar as major species, were detected in tracheobronchial lavage samples. Concentrations of SAA and LBP increased at week 1 had the highest values at week 3 and decreased at week 4 of outbreak. Some calves had high Hp concentrations at week 3, but AGP concentrations did not rise during respiratory disease. Higher SAA, LBP and Hp concentrations at a later stage of BRD (week 3) were associated with the low BRSV-specific IgG(1) production, suggesting that these calves had enhanced inflammatory response to the secondary bacterial infection. In conclusion, APPs (especially SAA and LBP) are sensitive markers of respiratory infection, and they may be useful to explore host response to the respiratory infections in clinical research.
Article: The acute phase response.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adult mammals respond to tissue damage by implementing the acute phase response, which comprises a series of specific physiological reactions. This review outlines the principal cellular and molecular mechanisms that control initiation of the tissue response at the site of injury, the recruitment of the systemic defense mechanisms, the acute phase response of the liver and the resolution of the acute phase response.Immunology Today 03/1994; 15(2):74-80.
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ABSTRACT: The ability of a pure virus infection to induce an acute phase protein response is of interest as viral infections are normally considered to be less efficient in inducing an acute phase protein response than bacterial infections. This was studied in a bovine model for infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), analysing the induction of the two most dominant bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA). Strong and reproducible acute phase responses were detected for both proteins, peaking at around 7-8 days after inoculation of BRSV, while no response was seen in mock-inoculated control animals. The serum concentrations reached for SAA and haptoglobin during the BRSV-induced acute phase response were generally the same or higher than previously reported for bacterial infections in calves. The magnitude and the duration of the haptoglobin response was found to correlate well with the severity of clinical signs (fever) and with the extent of lung consolidation while SAA responded most rapidly to infection.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 12/2000; 77(1-2):151-9. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation was to study differences and similarities in the acute phase response of calves experimentally infected in the respiratory tract with either bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) or Mannheima haemolytica (Mh), or with a combination of both (BVDV/Mh). A non-inoculated control group was also included. The acute phase response was measured by serum or plasma concentrations of the acute phase proteins (APPs) haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen, and of cortisol, prostaglandin F2alpha-metabolite and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) activity. Clinical symptoms were also recorded and were most severe in the BVDV/Mh group. The symptoms were mild to moderate in the BVDV group, while none, or very mild symptoms were observed in the Mh group. In all inoculated groups, a significant acute phase response was observed, with elevated values of haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen, while the control group remained unaffected throughout the study. In general, the magnitude of the response was similar, but the duration of elevated concentrations of APPs was significantly longer in the BVDV/Mh group than in the BVDV group, reflecting the duration of the clinical symptoms. However, in the single infection groups, the APP response and the clinical symptoms were not correlated. The IFN-alpha activity increased in all BVDV-inoculated animals, but no response in cortisol and PGF2alpha-metabolite concentrations was observed after infection. Basal levels of serum concentrations of haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen were established and may be used for evaluating calf health in herds. The duration of elevated haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen values did not differ significantly within groups indicating that their value as indicator of disease is equal.Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 06/2003; 50(4):183-90. · 1.48 Impact Factor