Human astrovirus coat protein binds C1q and MBL and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement activation
ABSTRACT Human astroviruses (HAstVs) constitute a family of non-enveloped, RNA viruses which cause infantile gastroenteritis. We have previously demonstrated that purified HAstV coat protein (CP), multiple copies of which compose the viral capsid, bind C1q resulting in inhibition of classical complement pathway activity. The objective of this study was to further analyze the mechanism by which CP inhibits C1 activation. CP inhibited C1 activation, preventing cleavage of C1s to its active form in the presence of heat-aggregated IgG, a potent classical pathway activator. CP also inhibited generation of the potent anaphylatoxin C5a. CP dose-dependently bound to C1q, the isolated globular heads and the collagen-like regions of the C1q molecule. When CP was added to C1, C1s dissociated from C1q suggesting that CP functionally displaces the protease tetramer (C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s). Given the structural and functional relatedness of C1q and MBL, we subsequently investigated the interactions between CP and MBL. CP bound to purified MBL and was able to inhibit mannan-mediated activation of the lectin pathway. Interestingly, CP did not bind to a variant of MBL that replaces a lysine residue (Lys55) critical for binding to MASP-2, a functional homolog of C1s. Finally, CP was shown to cross the species barrier to inhibit C3 activation and MAC formation in rat serum. These findings suggest CP inhibits C1 and MBL activation via a novel mechanism of interference with the normal interaction of the recognition molecule with its cognate serine proteases.
SourceAvailable from: Reuben D Rohn[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia from diabetes is associated with increased risk of infection from S. aureus and increased severity of illness. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that elevated glucose (>6 mM) dramatically inhibited S. aureus-initiated complement-mediated immune effectors. Here we report in vivo studies evaluating the extent to which a hyperglycemic environment alters complement-mediated control of S. aureus infection in a rat peritonitis model. Rats were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes or sham-treated and then inoculated i.p. with S. aureus. Rats were euthanized and had peritoneal lavage at 2 or 24 hours after infection to evaluate early and late complement-mediated effects. Hyperglycemia decreased the influx of IgG and complement components into the peritoneum in response to S. aureus infection and decreased anaphylatoxin generation. Hyperglycemia decreased C4-fragment and C3-fragment opsonization of S. aureus recovered in peritoneal fluids, compared with euglycemic or insulin-rescued rats. Hyperglycemic rats showed decreased phagocytosis efficiency compared with euglycemic rats, which correlated inversely with bacterial survival. These results suggest that hyperglycemia inhibited humoral effector recruitment, anaphylatoxin generation, and complement-mediated opsonization of S. aureus, suggesting that hyperglycemic inhibition of complement effectors may contribute to the increased risk and severity of S. aureus infections in diabetic patients.Journal of Diabetes Research 12/2014; 2014:762051. DOI:10.1155/2014/762051 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The classical pathway of complement plays multiple physiological roles including modulating immunological effectors initiated by adaptive immune responses and an essential homeostatic role in the clearance of damaged self-antigens. However, dysregulated classical pathway activation is associated with antibody-initiated, inflammatory diseases processes like cold agglutinin disease, acute intravascular hemolytic transfusion reaction (AIHTR), and acute/hyperacute transplantation rejection. To date, only one putative classical pathway inhibitor, C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH), is currently commercially available and its only approved indication is for replacement treatment in hereditary angioedema, which is predominantly a kinin pathway disease. Given the variety of disease conditions in which the classical pathway is implicated, development of therapeutics that specifically inhibits complement initiation represents a major unmet medical need. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement. In vitro studies have demonstrated that these peptide inhibitors of complement C1 (PIC1) bind to the collagen-like region of the initiator molecule of the classical pathway, C1q. PIC1 binding to C1q blocks activation of the associated serine proteases (C1s–C1r–C1r–C1s) and subsequent downstream complement activation. Rational design optimization of PIC1 has resulted in the generation of a highly potent derivative of 15 amino acids. PIC1 inhibits classical pathway mediated complement activation in ABO incompatibility in vitro and inhibiting classical pathway activation in vivo in rats. This review will focus on the pre-clinical development of PIC1 and discuss its potential as a therapeutic in antibody-mediated classical pathway disease, specifically AIHTR.Frontiers in Immunology 08/2014; 5(46). DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00406
Article: Human Astroviruses[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human astroviruses (HAtVs) are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that were discovered in 1975. Astroviruses infecting other species, particularly mammalian and avian, were identified and classified into the genera Mamastrovirus and Avastrovirus. Through next-generation sequencing, many new astroviruses infecting different species, including humans, have been described, and the Astroviridae family shows a high diversity and zoonotic potential. Three divergent groups of HAstVs are recognized: the classic (MAstV 1), HAstV-MLB (MAstV 6), and HAstV-VA/HMO (MAstV 8 and MAstV 9) groups. Classic HAstVs contain 8 serotypes and account for 2 to 9% of all acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in children worldwide. Infections are usually self-limiting but can also spread systemically and cause severe infections in immunocompromised patients. The other groups have also been identified in children with gastroenteritis, but extraintestinal pathologies have been suggested for them as well. Classic HAstVs may be grown in cells, allowing the study of their cell cycle, which is similar to that of caliciviruses. The continuous emergence of new astroviruses with a potential zoonotic transmission highlights the need to gain insights on their biology in order to prevent future health threats. This review focuses on the basic virology, pathogenesis, host response, epidemiology, diagnostic assays, and prevention strategies for HAstVs.Clinical Microbiology Reviews 10/2014; 27(4):1048-1074. DOI:10.1128/CMR.00013-14 · 16.00 Impact Factor