Human astrovirus coat protein binds C1q and MBL and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement activation
ABSTRACT Human astroviruses (HAstVs) constitute a family of non-enveloped, RNA viruses which cause infantile gastroenteritis. We have previously demonstrated that purified HAstV coat protein (CP), multiple copies of which compose the viral capsid, bind C1q resulting in inhibition of classical complement pathway activity. The objective of this study was to further analyze the mechanism by which CP inhibits C1 activation. CP inhibited C1 activation, preventing cleavage of C1s to its active form in the presence of heat-aggregated IgG, a potent classical pathway activator. CP also inhibited generation of the potent anaphylatoxin C5a. CP dose-dependently bound to C1q, the isolated globular heads and the collagen-like regions of the C1q molecule. When CP was added to C1, C1s dissociated from C1q suggesting that CP functionally displaces the protease tetramer (C1s-C1r-C1r-C1s). Given the structural and functional relatedness of C1q and MBL, we subsequently investigated the interactions between CP and MBL. CP bound to purified MBL and was able to inhibit mannan-mediated activation of the lectin pathway. Interestingly, CP did not bind to a variant of MBL that replaces a lysine residue (Lys55) critical for binding to MASP-2, a functional homolog of C1s. Finally, CP was shown to cross the species barrier to inhibit C3 activation and MAC formation in rat serum. These findings suggest CP inhibits C1 and MBL activation via a novel mechanism of interference with the normal interaction of the recognition molecule with its cognate serine proteases.
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ABSTRACT: Astroviruses are becoming a growing concern in veterinary and public health. To date there are no registered vaccines against astrovirus-induced disease, mostly due to the difficulty to cultivate astroviruses to high titer for vaccine development using conventional techniques. As means to circumvent this drawback, we have developed stably transfected mink fetal cells and BHK21 cells constitutively expressing the full-length and truncated capsid proteins of two distinct genotypes of mink astrovirus. Protein expression in these stably transfected cells was demonstrated by strong signals as evaluated by in-situ PLA and IFA, and confirmed by Western blotting. The recombinant full-length and truncated proteins induced a high level of antibodies in mink, evaluated by ELISA, demonstrating their immunogenicity. In a challenge experiment in mink, a reduction in presentation clinical signs and virus shedding was observed in mink kits born from immunized females. The gene integration and protein expression were sustained through cell passage, showing that the used approach is robust and reliable for expression of functional capsid proteins for vaccine and diagnostic applications.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e82978. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0082978 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Therapeutic hypothermia is a treatment modality that is increasingly used to improve clinical neurological outcomes for ischemia-reperfusion injury-mediated diseases. Antibody-initiated classical complement pathway activation has been shown to contribute to ischemia-reperfusion injury in multiple disease processes. However, how therapeutic hypothermia affects complement activation is unknown. Our goal was to measure the independent effect of temperature on complement activation, and more specifically, examine the relationship between clinical hypothermia temperatures (31-33[degree sign]C), and complement activation.Journal of Translational Medicine 06/2014; 12(1):181. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-12-181 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated the potential of a linear β-1,3-glucan (curdlan) as a starting material to access C6-modified glucose derivatives and found that 6-bromo-6-deoxyglucose, 6-azide-6-deoxyglucose, and 6-acetamido-6-deoxyglucose could be readily prepared from curdlan through its C6-selective and quantitative modifications and subsequent acid-catalyzed hydrolysis.Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry 06/2014; 33(5). DOI:10.1080/07328303.2014.918624 · 1.18 Impact Factor