Organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticide urinary metabolite concentrations in young children living in a southeastern United States city
ABSTRACT Pesticide metabolites are routinely measured in the urine of children in the United States. Although the sources of these metabolites are believed to include residues in food from agricultural applications and residues from applications in everyday environments (e.g., homes), few studies have been able to demonstrate an association between indoor residential pesticide applications and pesticide metabolite concentrations. To better quantify the effects of potential risk factors related to demographics, household characteristics, occupation, and pesticide use practices on urinary biomarker levels, we performed a study in a city (Jacksonville, Florida) previously determined to have elevated rates of pesticide use. We enrolled a convenience sample of 203 children ranging in age from 4 to 6 years; their caregivers completed a questionnaire and the children provided a urine sample, which was analyzed for a series of organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticide metabolites. The questionnaire responses substantiated much higher pesticide use for the study participants as compared to other studies. Urinary metabolite concentrations were approximately an order of magnitude higher than concentrations reported for young children in other studies. Few statistically significant differences (at the p<0.05 level) were observed, however, several trends are worth noting. In general, mean urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations were higher for males, Caucasians, and those children living in homes with an indoor pesticide application occurring within the past four weeks. Comparing the urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in this study to those reported in the NHANES and GerES studies showed that the children living in Jacksonville had substantially higher pyrethroid pesticide exposures than the general populations of the United States and Germany. Further research is needed in communities where routine pesticide use has been documented to obtain information on the most important routes and pathways of exposure and to develop the most effective strategies for reducing pesticide exposures for children.
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ABSTRACT: Urinary concentrations of pyrethroid metabolites were measured in the first void urine samples collected from 132 healthy people living in the Gdańsk region of Northern Poland in 2010 and 2011. Four metabolites of synthetic pyrethroids: cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (cis-, trans-Cl(2)CA), cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (Br(2)CA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) were simultaneously liquid-liquid extracted, derivatized with hexafluoroisopropanol and analyzed by a gas chromatography ion-trap mass spectrometry. All the analytes were detected and quantified in the samples with various frequency, 3-phenoxybenzoic being the most often (80%) and the others less frequently (7-11%). Distribution of 3-PBA concentrations followed log-normal model, the mean concentration of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid: 0.393μg/L (0.327μg/g creatinine) is similar to those of the other general populations in various regions of the world. Neither sex nor age were predictors of urinary 3-PBA. Our findings suggest wide exposure to pyrethroid insecticides in the Polish general population. There is a continuous need to further study the exposure to synthetic pyrethroids among the general population since there is a strong, increasing trend in their usage.International journal of hygiene and environmental health 09/2012; 216(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.09.001 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pyrethroid pesticides are widely used throughout the world in agriculture to protect crops and in public health to control diseases. Of particular concern is exposure of pregnant women and their fetuses because little is known about the potential developmental hazards of such exposure. Several studies have detected internal pyrethroid exposure in urine both in adults and children, but few published data are available on metabolites in pregnant women. The present paper provides data on pyrethroid pesticides exposure based on questionnaire items and measurement of maternal urinary metabolite levels among 1149 pregnant women living in agricultural area of Jiangsu Province, China in 2009-2010, none of which reported occupational exposure to pyrethroid insecticides during pregnancy. To assess exposure to pyrethroid pesticides, urine specimens were analyzed for three main metabolites of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), cis-and-trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA and trans-DCCA) using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The limits of detection for three pyrethroid metabolites were 0.1μg/L. All pyrethroid metabolites were found in more than 94.0% of the urine samples. Median unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted values for urinary pyrethroid metabolites in these females were 1.01μg/L and 1.55μg/g Cre for 3-PBA, 0.44μg/L and 0.69μg/g Cre for cis-DCCA, 1.17μg/L and 1.86μg/g Cre for trans-DCCA, respectively. About half (45.5%) of women reported that they or family members had applied commercially available indoor insecticides during pregnancy. Both the questionnaire and laboratory data revealed that exposure to pyrethroid pesticides was considerably widespread in our subjects. The median values of urinary metabolites in the present study were about 4-10 times higher as those of general population from the developed countries. Interestingly, we found there was a temporal season variation tendency in different months. Especially, the levels of urinary metabolites in summer were significant higher than those in winter. These data indicated the need to assess the potential adverse effects of pyrethroid pesticides exposure on fetuses and infants in order to take adequate measures to protect pregnant women from pesticide exposures during pregnancy.International journal of hygiene and environmental health 01/2012; 215(5):487-95. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2011.12.003 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antenatal urine of 497 pregnant women was collected in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of a county hospital in Jiaozuo, Henan. The content of the main metabolites of synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in urine were determined. After 1 year, physical development indices of 1-year old infants, such as height, weight, and head and chest circumference, were measured. The neural and mental development of the infants was assessed by the Development Screen Test (DST) scale. We observed that the level of synthetic pyrethroid pesticide exposure was negatively related to the neural and mental development of infants (β = −0.1527, P < 0.05). Therefore, direct or indirect exposure to synthetic pyrethroid pesticides should be avoided during pregnancy.Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health 07/2013; 25(4 suppl):72S-79S. DOI:10.1177/1010539513496267 · 1.11 Impact Factor