Organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticide urinary metabolite concentrations in young children living in a southeastern United States city
ABSTRACT Pesticide metabolites are routinely measured in the urine of children in the United States. Although the sources of these metabolites are believed to include residues in food from agricultural applications and residues from applications in everyday environments (e.g., homes), few studies have been able to demonstrate an association between indoor residential pesticide applications and pesticide metabolite concentrations. To better quantify the effects of potential risk factors related to demographics, household characteristics, occupation, and pesticide use practices on urinary biomarker levels, we performed a study in a city (Jacksonville, Florida) previously determined to have elevated rates of pesticide use. We enrolled a convenience sample of 203 children ranging in age from 4 to 6 years; their caregivers completed a questionnaire and the children provided a urine sample, which was analyzed for a series of organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticide metabolites. The questionnaire responses substantiated much higher pesticide use for the study participants as compared to other studies. Urinary metabolite concentrations were approximately an order of magnitude higher than concentrations reported for young children in other studies. Few statistically significant differences (at the p<0.05 level) were observed, however, several trends are worth noting. In general, mean urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations were higher for males, Caucasians, and those children living in homes with an indoor pesticide application occurring within the past four weeks. Comparing the urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in this study to those reported in the NHANES and GerES studies showed that the children living in Jacksonville had substantially higher pyrethroid pesticide exposures than the general populations of the United States and Germany. Further research is needed in communities where routine pesticide use has been documented to obtain information on the most important routes and pathways of exposure and to develop the most effective strategies for reducing pesticide exposures for children.
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- "In environmental exposure and health research, CRc is used to " normalize " urinary levels of other analytes; this adjustment is performed most frequently on urinary metabolites of exogenous chemicals. Here, concentrations of chemical biomarkers (reflecting either exposures [Koch et al., 2005; Baker et al., 2005; Naeher et al., 2010] or biological responses [Bales et al., 1984; Price et al., 2005; Emond et al., 2013]) vary with changing urine output. Dividing chemical biomarker concentration by CRc (yielding a creatinine-adjusted concentration) might remove some variation produced by increased or decreased urine output (Barber and Wallis, 1986; Boeniger et al., 1993). "
ABSTRACT: Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously produced chemical that is routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function and sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffé (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change, and can therefore require automated processing equipment for moderate- to high-throughput analysis (hundreds to thousands of samples per day). This study evaluates an alternative colorimetric method, the "plateau Jaffé" (PJ) method, which utilizes the chemistry of the KJ method, a commercially available kit, and a multipoint calibration curve. This method is amenable to moderate-throughput sample analysis and does not require automated processing equipment. Thirty-two spot urine samples from healthy adult volunteers were analyzed for creatinine concentration (CRc) using the KJ and PJ methods. Samples were also analyzed using a liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) method, which acted as an analytical control. Replicate measurements of spot samples (natural log-transformed values) were used to estimate method precision, and linear regression models were used to evaluate method accuracy (LC-TOF/MS measurements were considered the analytical benchmark). Measurement precision was comparable across all three methods, with coefficent of variation estimates ranging from 3 to 6%. Regression models generally showed good agreement across methods with R(2) estimates ranging from .996 to .998, slope estimates ranging from .944 to .986, and y-intercept estimates ranging from 0.111 to 0.303. Minor bias (between 2 and 16%) was observed across methods at the tails of the measurement distributions. The provided regression equations can be used to adjust for this bias and to improve CR measurement comparisons across studies employing different methods. Considering these results, the PJ method is a suitable alternative to the industry standard KJ method for urinary CRc determination. It can be implemented for moderate-throughput sample analysis using modest and commonly available lab instrumentation and manual sample preparation techniques.Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 07/2014; 77(18):1114-23. DOI:10.1080/15287394.2014.922391 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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- "Exposure to pesticides is more prevalent in individuals working in agricultural sectors such as farmers, peasants, farm workers. They are at increased risk of direct exposure while others may be exposed due to food contamination . Contaminants get accumulated in the body and change the gene expression profile in exposed tissues. "
ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and retinal degeneration have been studied extensively and varying molecular mechanisms have been proposed for onset of such diseases. Although genetic analysis of these diseases has also been described, yet the mechanisms governing the extent of vulnerability to such diseases remains unresolved. Recent studies have, therefore, focused on the role of environmental exposure in progression of such diseases especially in the context of prenatal and postnatal life, explaining how molecular mechanisms mediate epigenetic changes leading to degenerative diseases. This review summarizes both the animal and human studies describing various environmental stimuli to which an individual or an animal is exposed during in-utero and postnatal period and mechanisms that promote neurodegeneration. The SNPs mediating gene environment interaction are also described. Further, preventive and therapeutic strategies are suggested for effective intervention.Translational Neurodegeneration 04/2014; 3:9. DOI:10.1186/2047-9158-3-9
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- "The presence of pyrethroid metabolites, such as 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, in the urine of U.S. and German residents indicates that the population is widely exposed to this family of pesticides; furthermore, children have higher exposures than adolescents and adults [2-5]. "
ABSTRACT: During the neurodevelopmental period, the brain is potentially more susceptible to environmental exposure to pollutants. The aim was to determine if neonatal exposure to permethrin (PERM) pesticide, at a low dosage that does not produce signs of obvious abnormalities, could represent a risk for the onset of diseases later in the life. Neonatal rats (from postnatal day 6 to 21) were treated daily by gavage with a dose of PERM (34 mg/kg) close to the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), and hippocampal morphology and function of synapses were investigated in adulthood. Fear conditioning, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests were used to assess cognitive skills in rats, whereas electron microscopy analysis was used to investigate hippocampal morphological changes that occurred in adults. In both contextual and tone fear conditioning tests, PERM-treated rats showed a decreased freezing. In the passive avoidance test, the consolidation of the inhibitory avoidance was time-limited: the memory was not impaired for the first 24 h, whereas the information was not retained 72 h following training. The same trend was observed in the spatial reference memories acquired by Morris water maze. In PERM-treated rats, electron microscopy analysis revealed a decrease of synapses and surface densities in the stratum moleculare of CA1, in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and in the mossy fibers of the hippocampal areas together with a decrease of perforated synapses in the stratum moleculare of CA1 and in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Early-life permethrin exposure imparts long-lasting consequences on the hippocampus such as impairment of long-term memory storage and synaptic morphology.Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 03/2014; 6(1):7. DOI:10.1186/1866-1955-6-7 · 3.71 Impact Factor