Organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticide urinary metabolite concentrations in young children living in a southeastern United States city.
ABSTRACT Pesticide metabolites are routinely measured in the urine of children in the United States. Although the sources of these metabolites are believed to include residues in food from agricultural applications and residues from applications in everyday environments (e.g., homes), few studies have been able to demonstrate an association between indoor residential pesticide applications and pesticide metabolite concentrations. To better quantify the effects of potential risk factors related to demographics, household characteristics, occupation, and pesticide use practices on urinary biomarker levels, we performed a study in a city (Jacksonville, Florida) previously determined to have elevated rates of pesticide use. We enrolled a convenience sample of 203 children ranging in age from 4 to 6 years; their caregivers completed a questionnaire and the children provided a urine sample, which was analyzed for a series of organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticide metabolites. The questionnaire responses substantiated much higher pesticide use for the study participants as compared to other studies. Urinary metabolite concentrations were approximately an order of magnitude higher than concentrations reported for young children in other studies. Few statistically significant differences (at the p<0.05 level) were observed, however, several trends are worth noting. In general, mean urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations were higher for males, Caucasians, and those children living in homes with an indoor pesticide application occurring within the past four weeks. Comparing the urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in this study to those reported in the NHANES and GerES studies showed that the children living in Jacksonville had substantially higher pyrethroid pesticide exposures than the general populations of the United States and Germany. Further research is needed in communities where routine pesticide use has been documented to obtain information on the most important routes and pathways of exposure and to develop the most effective strategies for reducing pesticide exposures for children.
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ABSTRACT: The present study focuses on the influence of a purification step – after extraction of pesticides from hair and before analysis of the extract – on the sensitivity of analytical methods including compounds from different chemical classes (both parent and metabolites). Sixty-seven pesticides and metabolites from different chemical classes were tested here: organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, ureas, azoles, phenylpyrazoles and neonicotinoids. Two gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization–tandem mass spectrometry methods and one based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry were used. Seven solid-phase extraction cartridges: C18, S-DVB, PS-DVB, GCB, GCB/PSA, SAX/PSA and Florisil/PSA were tested and compared to more classical liquid–liquid extraction procedures using ethyl acetate, hexane and dichloromethane. Although LLE allowed obtaining good results for some compounds, on the whole, SPE clearly provided better recovery for the majority of the pesticide residues tested in the present study. GCB/PSA was clearly the best suited to non-polar compounds such as organochlorines, pyrethroids and organophosphates, with recovery ranging from 45.9% (diflufenican) to 117.1% (parathion methyl). For hydrophilic metabolites (e.g. dialkyl phosphates and other organophosphate metabolites, pyrethroid metabolites, phenols and carbamate metabolites), the best results were obtained with PS-DVB, with recovery ranged from 10.3% (malathion monocarboxylic acid) to 93.1% (para-nitrophenol). For hydrophilic parent pesticides (e.g. neonicotinoids, carbamates, azoles) and metabolites without nucleophilic functions, the best recovery was obtained with SAX/PSA, with recovery ranging from 52.1% (3-hydroxycarbofuran) to 100.9% (3,4-dichloroaniline). Solid phase extraction was found to be more suitable than the liquid–liquid extraction for pesticides and their metabolites determination in terms of number of extracted compounds and their recovery. Moreover, the use of solid phase extraction cartridges has enabled the reduction of the analytical background noise, resulting in better chromatographic separations.Journal of Chromatography B 01/2014; 955–956:98 - 107. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly from pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields, and are faced with poor housing conditions, causing higher pest infestation and more pesticide use. We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) levels among 105 women and 103 children. The median urinary 3PBA levels (children=2.56ug/g creatinine, mothers=1.46ug/g creatinine) were higher than those reported in population based studies for the United States general population, but similar to or lower than studies with known high levels of pyrethroid exposure. A positive association was evident between poor housing conditions and the urinary metabolite levels, showing that poor housing conditions are a contributing factor to the higher levels of 3PBA seen in the urine of these farm worker families. Further research is warranted to fully investigate sources of exposure.Environmental Research 04/2014; 131C:153-159. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During the neurodevelopmental period, the brain is potentially more susceptible to environmental exposure to pollutants. The aim was to determine if neonatal exposure to permethrin (PERM) pesticide, at a low dosage that does not produce signs of obvious abnormalities, could represent a risk for the onset of diseases later in the life. Neonatal rats (from postnatal day 6 to 21) were treated daily by gavage with a dose of PERM (34 mg/kg) close to the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), and hippocampal morphology and function of synapses were investigated in adulthood. Fear conditioning, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests were used to assess cognitive skills in rats, whereas electron microscopy analysis was used to investigate hippocampal morphological changes that occurred in adults. In both contextual and tone fear conditioning tests, PERM-treated rats showed a decreased freezing. In the passive avoidance test, the consolidation of the inhibitory avoidance was time-limited: the memory was not impaired for the first 24 h, whereas the information was not retained 72 h following training. The same trend was observed in the spatial reference memories acquired by Morris water maze. In PERM-treated rats, electron microscopy analysis revealed a decrease of synapses and surface densities in the stratum moleculare of CA1, in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and in the mossy fibers of the hippocampal areas together with a decrease of perforated synapses in the stratum moleculare of CA1 and in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Early-life permethrin exposure imparts long-lasting consequences on the hippocampus such as impairment of long-term memory storage and synaptic morphology.Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 03/2014; 6(1):7. · 3.45 Impact Factor