Organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticide urinary metabolite concentrations in young children living in a southeastern United States city

Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 3.16). 11/2009; 408(5):1145-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.022
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pesticide metabolites are routinely measured in the urine of children in the United States. Although the sources of these metabolites are believed to include residues in food from agricultural applications and residues from applications in everyday environments (e.g., homes), few studies have been able to demonstrate an association between indoor residential pesticide applications and pesticide metabolite concentrations. To better quantify the effects of potential risk factors related to demographics, household characteristics, occupation, and pesticide use practices on urinary biomarker levels, we performed a study in a city (Jacksonville, Florida) previously determined to have elevated rates of pesticide use. We enrolled a convenience sample of 203 children ranging in age from 4 to 6 years; their caregivers completed a questionnaire and the children provided a urine sample, which was analyzed for a series of organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticide metabolites. The questionnaire responses substantiated much higher pesticide use for the study participants as compared to other studies. Urinary metabolite concentrations were approximately an order of magnitude higher than concentrations reported for young children in other studies. Few statistically significant differences (at the p<0.05 level) were observed, however, several trends are worth noting. In general, mean urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations were higher for males, Caucasians, and those children living in homes with an indoor pesticide application occurring within the past four weeks. Comparing the urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in this study to those reported in the NHANES and GerES studies showed that the children living in Jacksonville had substantially higher pyrethroid pesticide exposures than the general populations of the United States and Germany. Further research is needed in communities where routine pesticide use has been documented to obtain information on the most important routes and pathways of exposure and to develop the most effective strategies for reducing pesticide exposures for children.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study we propose an analytical strategy that combines a target approach for the quantitative analysis of contemporary pesticide metabolites with a comprehensive post-target screening for the identification of biomarkers of exposure to environmental contaminants in urine using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The quantitative method for the target analysis of 29 urinary metabolites of organophosphate (OP) insecticides, synthetic pyrethroids, herbicides and fungicides was validated after a previous statistical optimization of the main factors governing the ion source ionization and a fragmentation study using the high energy collision dissociation (HCD) cell. The full scan accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50,000 FWHM (scan speed, 2Hz), in both ESI+ and ESI- modes, and with and without HCD-fragmentation. The method - LOQ was lower than 3.2μgL(-1) for the majority of the analytes. For post-target screening a customized theoretical database was built, for the identification of 60 metabolites including pesticides, PAHs, phenols, and other metabolites of environmental pollutants. For identification purposes, accurate exact mass with less than 5ppm, and diagnostic ions including isotopes and/or fragments were used. The analytical strategy was applied to 20 urine sample collected from children living in Valencia Region. Eleven target metabolites were detected with concentrations ranging from 1.18 to 131μgL(-1). Likewise, several compounds were tentatively identified in the post-target analysis belonging to the families of phthalates, phenols and parabenes. The proposed strategy is suitable for the determination of target pesticide biomarkers in urine in the framework of biomonitoring studies, and appropriate for the identification of other non-target metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Chromatography A 11/2014; 1374. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2014.11.010 · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synthetic pyrethroids are present in numerous commercial insecticide formulations and have extensive indoor and outdoor applications worldwide, including agricultural, public, residential, and veterinary usages for pest control. Pyrethroid use has increased continuously in recent years. The aim of this review is to provide updated and comprehensive information on human exposure and potential hazards associated with this class of pesticides. An initial keyword search in the PubMed database was conducted to identify relevant articles. Were taken into considerations only the studies published in the last decade that have assessed exposure and health effects of pyrethroids in human populations. Literature review shows that exposure evaluations increasingly focus on biomonitoring and that a large number of recent epidemiological studies pertain to the effects of pyrethroids on male fertility and prenatal development.
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 01/2015; 218(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.01.002 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Journal of Chromatography A 11/2014; · 4.26 Impact Factor