Organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticide urinary metabolite concentrations in young children living in a southeastern United States city.
ABSTRACT Pesticide metabolites are routinely measured in the urine of children in the United States. Although the sources of these metabolites are believed to include residues in food from agricultural applications and residues from applications in everyday environments (e.g., homes), few studies have been able to demonstrate an association between indoor residential pesticide applications and pesticide metabolite concentrations. To better quantify the effects of potential risk factors related to demographics, household characteristics, occupation, and pesticide use practices on urinary biomarker levels, we performed a study in a city (Jacksonville, Florida) previously determined to have elevated rates of pesticide use. We enrolled a convenience sample of 203 children ranging in age from 4 to 6 years; their caregivers completed a questionnaire and the children provided a urine sample, which was analyzed for a series of organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticide metabolites. The questionnaire responses substantiated much higher pesticide use for the study participants as compared to other studies. Urinary metabolite concentrations were approximately an order of magnitude higher than concentrations reported for young children in other studies. Few statistically significant differences (at the p<0.05 level) were observed, however, several trends are worth noting. In general, mean urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations were higher for males, Caucasians, and those children living in homes with an indoor pesticide application occurring within the past four weeks. Comparing the urinary pesticide metabolite concentrations in this study to those reported in the NHANES and GerES studies showed that the children living in Jacksonville had substantially higher pyrethroid pesticide exposures than the general populations of the United States and Germany. Further research is needed in communities where routine pesticide use has been documented to obtain information on the most important routes and pathways of exposure and to develop the most effective strategies for reducing pesticide exposures for children.
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ABSTRACT: A pilot observational exposure study was performed to evaluate methods for collecting multimedia measurements (air, dust, food, urine) and activity patterns to assess potential exposures of young children to pesticides in their homes. Nine children (mean age=5 years) and their caregivers participated in this study, performed in the Duval County, Florida, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Duval County Health Department. For all nine children, the total time reported for sleeping and napping ranged from 9.5 to 14 h per day, indoor quiet time from 0 to 5.5 h per day, indoor active time from 0.75 to 5.5 h per day, outdoor quiet time from 0 to 1.5 h per day, and outdoor active time from 0.5 to 6.5 h per day. Each home had one to three pesticide products present, with aerosols being most common. Pesticide inventories, however, were not useful for predicting pesticide levels in the home. Synthetic pyrethroids were the most frequently identified active ingredients in the products present in each home. Fifteen pesticide active ingredients were measured in the application area wipes (not detected (ND) to 580 ng/cm(2)), 13 in the play area wipes (ND-117 ng/cm(2)), and 14 in the indoor air samples (ND-378 ng/m(3)) and the socks (ND-1000 ng/cm(2)). Cis-permethrin, trans-permethrin, and cypermethrin were measured in all nine homes. Chlorpyrifos was measured in all nine homes even though it was not reported used by the participants. All urine samples contained measurable concentrations of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). The median 3-PBA urinary concentration for the nine children was 2.2 mug/l. A wide variety of pesticide active ingredients were measured in these nine homes at median concentrations that were often higher than reported previously in similar studies. These data highlight the need for additional observational studies in regions where pesticides are used in order to understand the factors that affect young children's exposures and the education/mitigation strategies that can be used to reduce children's exposures.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 02/2008; 18(1):31-44. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin was administered orally to six male volunteers as a single dose of 3.3 mg (cis: trans 1:1) and dermally to six volunteers at a dose of 31 mg/800 cm2 (cis:trans 56:44) as a soya oil-based formulation. Urine samples were collected for up to 5 days and analysed for the metabolites cis and trans 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCVA), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) and 3-(4'-hydroxyphenoxy) benzoic acid (4OH3PBA) following an acid hydrolysis procedure. 2. Following oral dosing approx. equal amounts of (cis+trans DCVA) and (3PBA+4OH3PBA) were excreted with peak excretion rates occurring between 8 and 24 h after dosing. The ratio of trans:cis DCVA was on average 2:1. Based on DCVA measurements the amount of cypermethrin absorbed was estimated to be between 27% and 57% (mean 36%) of the administered dose. 3. Peak urinary excretion rates of metabolites occurred between 12 and 36 h after dermal dosing. The amount of metabolites derived from the phenoxybenzyl moiety (3PBA+4OH3PBA) was on average 4 times greater than the amount of (cis+trans DCVA) recovered in urine. The ratio of trans:cis DCVA was, on average 1:1.2. Based on the recovery of the phenoxybenzyl metabolites it is estimated that 0.85-1.8% (mean 1.2%) of the administered cypermethrin was absorbed. 4. These studies demonstrate marked differences in the urinary metabolite profile by the two routes, and provide an improved basis for determining the extent and main route of absorption of cypermethrin under occupational exposure conditions.Xenobiotica 09/1992; 22(8):983-91. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The most frequently used pesticide in U.S. homes, as well as in schools and day care centers, is chlorpyrifos. In 1998, this insecticide was detected in household dust from the former U.S. Forces housing estates in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, resulting from its earlier use up to 1993, i.e., at least 4 years ago. This led to great concern in the new inhabitants. To investigate their internal exposure to the substance, they were offered the opportunity of taking part in biomonitoring examinations. Children playing on the floor were assumed to be especially at risk due to increased exposure to chlorpyrifos via oral or dermal intake. A total of 1146 inhabitants took part in this voluntary investigation. All of them stated that they had never used chlorpyrifos in their homes. Spot urine samples of the study participants were analyzed for six metabolites of organophosphorous insecticides [dimethylphosphate (DMP), diethylphosphate (DEP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), and diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP)] using a very sensitive gas chromatographic method with mass-selective detection and a limit of detection of 1 microg/L. No evidence was found of increased internal exposure due to former chlorpyrifos application in these homes (>4 years ago), either in children or in adults. The median values and 95th percentiles of the urinary metabolite concentrations in 484 adults were (microg/g creatinine): DMP, 15.5 and 102.5; DMTP, 13.5 and 125.8; DMDTP, <1 and 13.1; DEP, 2.1 and 11.6; DETP, <1 and 6.4; DEDTP, both <1. The urinary metabolite concentrations in children <6 years of age were higher; this was caused mainly by lower creatinine concentrations. To conclude, no increase in internal exposure due to former indoor application of chlorpyrifos could be found, and the reference values published for internal organophosphate exposure in adults in Germany were confirmed. However, as shown in other environmental studies, the urinary excretion of organophosphorous metabolites exceeds dietary intake several fold; this has been estimated from the data in various duplicate dietary studies. This observation calls for further investigation.Environmental Research 05/2001; 86(1):80-7. · 3.24 Impact Factor