Neurotrophic actions of bone marrow stromal cells on primary culture of dorsal root ganglion tissues and neurons.
ABSTRACT Application of adult bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) provides therapeutic benefits to the treatment of neurological insults. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of nonhematopoietic BMSCs to produce soluble factors and stimulate signaling pathways in neurons that mediate trophic effects. A combination of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry showed that the BMSCs released into the culture medium an array of soluble factors such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and ciliary neurotrophic factor, which have been shown to exhibit potent neurotrophic effects on neural cells. Immunochemistry, cell viability assay, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR collectively showed that neurite outgrowth and neurogenesis in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants and neurons were enhanced after they were cocultured with rat BMSCs. Western blot analysis revealed that BMSC-conditioned medium activated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and/or phosphoinositide 3-kinase/serine/threonine kinase (PI3K/Akt) in primary culture of rat DRG neurons, which suggested that BMSCs trigger endogenous survival signaling pathways in neurons through their secreted soluble factors. Our data help to elucidate the mechanisms by which BMSCs function as a cell therapy agent in peripheral nerve regeneration.
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ABSTRACT: The mechanisms underlying the potentially beneficial effect of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) on spinal cord injury (SCI) are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the protective effect of BMSCs in rats with SCI. A total of 45 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups; the SCI group (n=15), the BMSC group (n=15) and the sham-operation group (n=15). In the SCI and BMSC treatment groups, a modified Allen's weight-drop technique was used to induce SCI. The BMSC treatment group received an injection of BMSCs using a microneedle into the epicenter of the spinal cord 24 h after injury. Rats in the sham-operation group were not subjected to SCI; however, the corresponding vertebral laminae were removed. Seven days after transplantation, a rapid recovery was observed in the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scores of the BMSC treatment group, whereas the BBB scores in the SCI group remained low (P<0.05). Caspase-12 expression in the SCI group was increased compared with that in the sham-operation group, whereas caspase-12 expression was attenuated 24 h after transplantation in the BMSC treatment group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the transplantation of BMSCs may improve locomotor function and attenuate caspase-12 expression following SCI. Therefore, it is likely to be an effective strategy for preventing severe injury of the spinal cord.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 09/2013; 6(3):671-674. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Considerable research has been devoted to unraveling the regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation. The responses of NSCs to various differentiation-inducing stimuli, however, are still difficult to estimate. In this study, we aimed to search for a potent growth factor that was able to effectively induce differentiation of NSCs toward Schwann cells. NSCs were isolated from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of adult rats and identified by immunostaining. Three different growth factors were used to stimulate the differentiation of DRG-derived NSCs (DRG-NSCs). We found that among these three growth factors, bFGF was the strongest inducer for the glial differentiation of DRG-NSCs, and bFGF induced the generation of an increased number of Schwann cell-like cells as compared to nerve growth factor (NGF) and neuregulin1-β (NRG). These Schwann cell-like cells demonstrated the same characteristics as those of primary Schwann cells. Furthermore, we noted that bFGF-induced differentiation of DRG-NSCs toward Schwann cells might be mediated by binding to fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1) through activation of MAPK/ERK signal pathway.Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 09/2013; · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has attracted the attention of scientists and clinicians around the world. Basic and pre-clinical experimental studies have highlighted the positive effects of MSC treatment after spinal cord and peripheral nerve injury. These effects are believed to be due to their ability to differentiate into other cell lineages, modulate inflammatory and immunomodulatory responses, reduce cell apoptosis, secrete several neurotrophic factors and respond to tissue injury, among others. There are many pre-clinical studies on MSC treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) and peripheral nerve injuries. However, the same is not true for clinical trials, particularly those concerned with nerve trauma, indicating the necessity of more well-constructed studies showing the benefits that cell therapy can provide for individuals suffering the consequences of nerve lesions. As for clinical trials for SCI treatment the results obtained so far are not as beneficial as those described in experimental studies. For these reasons basic and pre-clinical studies dealing with MSC therapy should emphasize the standardization of protocols that could be translated to the clinical set with consistent and positive outcomes. This review is based on pre-clinical studies and clinical trials available in the literature from 2010 until now. At the time of writing this article there were 43 and 36 pre-clinical and 19 and 1 clinical trials on injured spinal cord and peripheral nerves, respectively.World journal of stem cells. 04/2014; 6(2):179-194.