Exogenous alpha-synuclein fibrils seed the formation of Lewy body-like intracellular inclusions in cultured cells.
ABSTRACT Cytoplasmic inclusions containing alpha-synuclein (alpha-Syn) fibrils, referred to as Lewy bodies (LBs), are the signature neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although alpha-Syn fibrils can be generated from recombinant alpha-Syn protein in vitro, the production of fibrillar alpha-Syn inclusions similar to authentic LBs in cultured cells has not been achieved. We show here that intracellular alpha-Syn aggregation can be triggered by the introduction of exogenously produced recombinant alpha-Syn fibrils into cultured cells engineered to overexpress alpha-Syn. Unlike unassembled alpha-Syn, these alpha-Syn fibrils "seeded" recruitment of endogenous soluble alpha-Syn protein and their conversion into insoluble, hyperphosphorylated, and ubiquitinated pathological species. Thus, this cell model recapitulates key features of LBs in human PD brains. Also, these findings support the concept that intracellular alpha-Syn aggregation is normally limited by the number of active nucleation sites present in the cytoplasm and that small quantities of alpha-Syn fibrils can alter this balance by acting as seeds for aggregation.
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Article: Exogenous alpha-synuclein fibrils seed the formation of Lewy body-like intracellular inclusions in cultured cells.
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ABSTRACT: Alpha-synuclein is a presynaptic protein expressed throughout the central nervous system, and it is the main component of Lewy bodies, one of the histopathological features of Parkinson’s disease (PD) which is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder. The conformational flexibility of α-synuclein allows it to adopt different conformations, i.e. bound to membranes or form aggregates, the oligomers are believed to be the more toxic species. In this review, we will focus on two major features of α-synuclein, transmission and toxicity that could help to understand the pathological characteristics of PD. One important feature of α-synuclein is its ability to be transmitted from neuron to neuron using mechanisms such as endocytosis, plasma membrane penetration or through exosomes, thus propagating the Lewy body pathology to different brain regions thereby contributing to the progressiveness of PD. The second feature of α-synuclein is that it confers cytotoxicity to recipient cells, principally when it is in an oligomeric state. This form causes mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, proteasome impairment, disruption of plasma membrane and pore formation, and lead to apoptosis pathway activation and consequent cell death. The complexity of α-synuclein oligomerization and formation of toxic species could be a major factor for the irreversibility of PD and could also explain the lack of successful therapies to halt the disease.Frontiers in Neuroscience 03/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2015.00059
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson’s disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting voluntary and controlled movement, is characterized by abnormal accumulations of α-synuclein (α-syn) in intraneuronal Lewy bodies. In the last years, the increased number of evidences from both the in vitro and in vivo studies has shown the ability of α-syn to misfold in amyloid conformations and to spread via neuron-to-neuron transmission, suggesting a prion-like behaviour. However, in contrast to prion protein (PrP), α-syn transmission is far from neuronal invasion. The high neuronal toxicity of both mature fibres and oligomeric species, as well as the intracellular localization of the protein and the difficulty to be secreted, could be key factors impeding the prion ability of α-syn aggregates.01/2015; 2015:1-7. DOI:10.1155/2015/172018
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS), a common neurodegenerative disease of the CNS, is characterized by the loss of oligodendrocytes and demyelination. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in MS, can activate necroptosis, a necrotic cell death pathway regulated by RIPK1 and RIPK3 under caspase-8-deficient conditions. Here, we demonstrate defective caspase-8 activation, as well as activation of RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL, the hallmark mediators of necroptosis, in the cortical lesions of human MS pathological samples. Furthermore, we show that MS pathological samples are characterized by an increased insoluble proteome in common with other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Finally, we show that necroptosis mediates oligodendrocyte degeneration induced by TNF-α and that inhibition of RIPK1 protects against oligodendrocyte cell death in two animal models of MS and in culture. Our findings demonstrate that necroptosis is involved in MS and suggest that targeting RIPK1 may represent a therapeutic strategy for MS. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Cell Reports 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.02.051 · 7.21 Impact Factor