Excess heart-disease-related mortality in a national study of patients with mental disorders: identifying modifiable risk factors
ABSTRACT People with mental disorders are estimated to die 25 years younger than the general population, and heart disease (HD) is a major contributor to their mortality. We assessed whether Veterans Affairs (VA) health system patients with mental disorders were more likely to die from HD than patients without these disorders, and whether modifiable factors may explain differential mortality risks.
Subjects included VA patients who completed the 1999 Large Health Survey of Veteran Enrollees (LHSV) and were either diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, other psychotic disorders, major depressive disorder or other depression diagnosis or diagnosed with none of these disorders. LHSV data on patient sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral factors (e.g., physical activity, smoking) were linked to mortality data from the National Death Index of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hierarchical multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess 8-year HD-related mortality risk by diagnosis, adding patient sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral factors.
Of 147,193 respondents, 11,809 (8%) died from HD. After controlling for sociodemographic and clinical factors, we found that those with schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR)=1.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.15-1.36; P<.001] or other psychotic disorders (HR=1.41; 95% CI: 1.27-1.55; P<.001) were more likely to die from HD than those without mental disorders. Controlling for behavioral factors diminished, but did not eliminate, the impact of psychosis on mortality. Smoking (HR=1.32; 95% CI: 1.26-1.39; P<.001) and inadequate physical activity (HR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.59-1.74; P<.001) were also associated with HD-related mortality.
Patients with psychosis were more likely to die from HD. For reduction of HD-related mortality, early interventions that promote smoking cessation and physical activity among veterans with psychotic disorders are warranted.
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ABSTRACT: The objective was to determine whether obesity screening and weight management program participation and outcomes are equitable for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) and depressive disorder (DD) compared to those without SMI/DD in Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest integrated US health system, which requires obesity screening and offers weight management to all in need. We used chart-reviewed, clinical and administrative VHA data from fiscal years 2010-2012 to estimate obesity screening and participation in the VHA's weight management program (MOVE!) across groups. Six- and 12-month weight changes in MOVE! participants were estimated using linear mixed models adjusted for confounders. Compared to individuals without SMI/DD, individuals with SMI or DD were less frequently screened for obesity (94%-94.7% vs. 95.7%) but had greater participation in MOVE! (10.1%-10.4% vs. 7.4%). MOVE! participants with SMI or DD lost approximately 1 lb less at 6 months. At 12 months, average weight loss for individuals with SMI or neither SMI/DD was comparable (-3.5 and -3.3 lb, respectively), but individuals with DD lost less weight (mean=-2.7 lb). Disparities in obesity screening and treatment outcomes across mental health diagnosis groups were modest. However, participation in MOVE! was low for every group, which limits population impact. Published by Elsevier Inc.General Hospital Psychiatry 11/2014; 37(1). DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2014.11.005 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: People with severe mental illness are much more likely to smoke than are members of the general population. Smoking cessation interventions that combine counseling and medication have been shown to be moderately effective, but quit rates remain low and little is known about the experiences of people with severe mental illness in smoking cessation interventions. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate factors that help or hinder the smoking cessation efforts of people with severe mental illness. Methods: We recruited 16 people with severe mental illness who had participated in a clinical trial of two different smoking cessation interventions, one involving nicotine replacement therapy only and the other nicotine replacement therapy combined with motivational interviewing and a peer support group. We conducted open-ended, semi-structured interviews with participants, who ranged in age from 20 to 56 years old, were equally distributed by gender (8 men and 8 women), and were predominantly Caucasian (n = 13, 81%). Primary mental illness diagnoses included schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (n = 6, 38%), depression (n = 5, 31%), bipolar disorder (n = 4, 25%), and anxiety disorder (n = 1, 6%). At entry into the clinical trial, participants smoked an average of 22.6 cigarettes per day (SD = 13.0). Results: Results indicated that people with mental illness have a diverse range of experiences in the same smoking cessation intervention. Smoking cessation experiences were influenced by factors related to the intervention itself (such as presence of smoking cessation aids, group supports, and emphasis on individual choice and needs), as well as individual factors (such as mental health, physical health, and substance use), and social-environmental factors (such as difficult life events and social relationships). Conclusions: An improved understanding of the smoking cessation experiences of people with severe mental illness can inform the delivery of future smoking cessation interventions for this population. The results of this study suggest the importance of smoking cessation interventions that offer a variety of treatment options, incorporating choice and flexibility, so as to be responsive to the evolving needs and preferences of individual clients.Journal of Dual Diagnosis 12/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.1080/15504263.2014.992096 · 0.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite evidence that exercise has been found to be effective in the treatment of depression, it is unclear whether these data can be extrapolated to bipolar disorder. Available evidence for bipolar disorder is scant, with no existing randomized controlled trials having tested the impact of exercise on depressive, manic or hypomanic symptomatology. Although exercise is often recommended in bipolar disorder, this is based on extrapolation from the unipolar literature, theory and clinical expertise and not empirical evidence. In addition, there are currently no available empirical data on program variables, with practical implications on frequency, intensity and type of exercise derived from unipolar depression studies. The aim of the current paper is to explore the relationship between exercise and bipolar disorder and potential mechanistic pathways. Given the high rate of medical co-morbidities experienced by people with bipolar disorder, it is possible that exercise is a potentially useful and important intervention with regard to general health benefits; however, further research is required to elucidate the impact of exercise on mood symptomology.Frontiers in Psychology 03/2015; 6:147. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00147 · 2.80 Impact Factor