Article

"Neural efficiency" of experts' brain during judgment of actions: A high-resolution EEG study in elite and amateur karate athletes

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.
Behavioural brain research (Impact Factor: 3.39). 11/2009; 207(2):466-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2009.10.034
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Here we tested two working hypotheses on spatially selective cortical activation ("neural efficiency") in experts: (i) compared to non-athletes, elite karate athletes are characterized by a reduced cortical activation during the judgment of karate actions; (ii) compared to non-athletes and elite karate athletes, amateur karate athletes are characterized by an intermediate cortical activation during the judgment of karate actions. Electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded in 16 elite karate athletes, 15 amateur athletes and 17 non-athletes. They observed a series of 120 karate videos. At the end of each video, the subjects had to judge the technical/athletic level of the exercise by a scale from 0 to 10. The mismatch between their judgment and that of the coach indexed the degree of action judgment. The EEG cortical sources were estimated by sLORETA. With reference to a pre-stimulus period, the power decrease of alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms during the video indexed the cortical activation (event-related desynchronization, ERD). Regarding the hypothesis of reduced activity in elite karate athletes, low- and high-frequency alpha ERD was less pronounced in dorsal and "mirror" pathways in the elite karate athletes than in the non-athletes. Regarding the hypothesis of intermediate cortical activity in amateur karate athletes, low- and high-frequency alpha ERD was less pronounced in dorsal pathways across the non-athletes, the amateur karate athletes, and the elite karate athletes. In conclusion, athletes' judgment of observed sporting actions is related to less pronounced alpha ERD, as a possible index of "neural efficiency" in experts engaged in social cognition.

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    • "Cochin et al. [27] have found stronger alpha band desynchronization in the left hemisphere, mainly over central electrodes and alpha band desynchronization has also been reported to be stronger during the observation of transitive movements [28] [29], and it seems to show gender differences too [30]. On the other hand, there is evidence suggesting that less alpha ERD could be an index of " neural efficiency " in sport experts [31]. Similar patterns of ERD have been described for beta band during AO and modulated by a participant's expertise [24] [26]. "
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    • "Babiloni et al. (2009) for example found that elite rhythmic gymnasts showed weaker low-and high frequency alpha ERD compared to non-gymnasts in occipital and temporal areas and in the dorsal pathway while observing rhythmic gymnastics videos. A similar study found, that low-and high-frequency alpha ERD was weaker in dorsal and fronto-parietal pathways in elite karate athletes compared to amateurs and non-athletes while watching and judging karate videos (Babiloni et al., 2010). Karate and fencing athletes showed weaker low-frequency alpha ERD at left central, right central, mid-parietal, and right parietal areas and weaker highfrequency alpha ERD at right frontal, left central, right central, and mid-parietal areas during a monopodalic upright standing task compared to non-athletes (Del Percio et al., 2009b). "
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    • "Increased AON activation following action experience may relate to greater engagement of predictive processes (Kilner, Friston, & Frith, 2007) or a richer understanding of the observed actions (Rizzolatti & Sinigaglia, 2010), whereas decreased AON activity following experience may imply more efficient neural processing of familiar actions (Babiloni et al., 2010). "
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