Delayed Onset of (Severe) Combined Immunodeficiency (S)CID (T-B plus NK plus ): Complete IL-7 Receptor Deficiency in a 22 Months Old Girl
ABSTRACT Usually IL-7 receptor deficiency presents as (T-B+NK+) (Severe) Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) within the first six months of life. All published IL-7R-deficient patients so far have been diagnosed and received stem cell transplantation within the first year of life.
We present a female patient born to non-consanguineous German parents with delayed manifestation. She presented with superinfected dermatitis at 6 months of life and developed a first pneumonia at age 9 months. On admission to our department at 22 months the patient presented with severe T cell lymphopenia. PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECI pneumonia was diagnosed from broncho-alveolar lavage fluid.
Sequencing of IL7RA in the patient revealed compound heterozygous mutations. FACS analysis showed no expression of IL-7 receptor alpha-chain on the patient's lympho- and monocytes. The patient successfully received haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a 9/10 matched unrelated donor at age 24 months. CONLUSION: Despite almost absent T cell functions clinical symptoms occurred late compared to previously published patients. Thus even in patients with moderate clinical symptoms and delayed onset a (T-B+NK+) (Severe) Combined Immunodeficiency ((S)CID)) due to missing IL-7 receptor signalling must be considered.
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- "In these models, the thymocytes are blocked at an early stage of differentiation and thymus cellularity is dramatically reduced. In vitro studies showing the essential role of IL-7 in establishing a competent immune system in humans  were confirmed by a few SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency disease) syndrome cases [46–49]. These patients presented a profound T cell deficiency due to a defect in the IL-7 receptor leading to an incapacity for binding to the cytokine or for signal transduction. "
ABSTRACT: Although great effort is being expended in the development of cancer immunotherapies, it is surprising that global lymphopenia and its various dimensions are not being systematically assessed in cancer patients. The incident pathologies associated with various immunosuppressed conditions such as those found in HIV infection have taught us that measuring various T cell populations including CD4 provides the clinician with a reliable measure for gauging the risk of cancer and opportunistic infections. Importantly, recent data emphasize the key link between lymphocyte T cell counts and overall survival in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Treatment of immunocompromised patients with interleukin-7 (IL-7), a critical growth and homeostatic factor for T cells, has been shown to produce a compelling profile of T cell reconstitution. The clinical results of this investigational therapy confirm data obtained from numerous preclinical studies and demonstrate the long-term stability of this immune reconstitution, not only on CD4 but also on CD8 T cells, involving recent thymic emigrants as well as naive, memory, and central memory T cells. Furthermore, IL-7 therapy also contributes to restoration of a broadened diversity of the T cell repertoire as well as to migration of these cells to lymph nodes and tissues. All these properties support the initiation of new clinical studies aimed at reconstituting the immune system of cancer patients before or immediately after chemotherapy in order to demonstrate a potentially profound increase in overall survival.Targeted Oncology 03/2012; 7(1):55-68. DOI:10.1007/s11523-012-0210-4 · 3.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Combined immunodeficiencies with impaired numbers and function of T- and B-cells can be attributed to defects in the recombinase activating genes (RAG). The products of these genes, the RAG1 and 2 proteins, are key players in the V(D)J recombination process leading to the assembly of antigen receptor genes. Complete RAG deficiency (RAGD) with no V(D)J (<1% recombination activity of wild type) is associated with classical SCID and absence of T- and B-cells. In RAGD with residual V(D)J activity (>1% recombination activity of wild type), several clinical and immunological subtypes have been described: RAGD with skin inflammation and alphabeta T-cell expansion (classical Omenn syndrome), RAGD with skin inflammation and without T-cell expansion (incomplete Omenn syndrome), RAGD with gammadelta T-cell expansion and RAGD with granulomas. Engraftment of maternal T-cells can add to variation in phenotype. The potential role of epigenetic factors that influence the emergence of these phenotypes is discussed. Thorough assessment and interpretation of clinical and immunological findings will guide treatment modalities as intense as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.Clinical Immunology 02/2010; 135(2):183-92. DOI:10.1016/j.clim.2010.01.013 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adenosin deaminase (ADA) deficiency is the cause for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in about 15% of patients with SCID, often presenting as T (-)B (-)NK (-)SCID. Treatment options for ADA-SCID are enzyme replacement, bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. We here describe the first patient with ADA-SCID and fatal hepatic failure despite bone marrow transplantation from a 10/10 HLA identical related donor. As patients with ADA-SCID may be at yet underestimated increased risk for rapid hepatic failure we speculate whether hepatitis in ADA-SCID should lead to the immediate treatment with enzyme replacement by pegylated ADA.Klinische Pädiatrie 03/2011; 223(2):85-9. DOI:10.1055/s-0030-1269916 · 1.90 Impact Factor