To investigate whether New York State employees who responded to the World Trade Center disaster were more likely to report asthma or lower respiratory symptoms (LRS; cough, wheeze, chest tightness, shortness of breath) than non-exposed employees, 2 years post-September 11.
Participants (578 exposed, 702 non-exposed) completed mailed questionnaires in 2003. A unique exposure assessment method was used; exposure scores were divided at the mean (at/below, above). Poisson regression was used.
Exposure was associated with LRS, but not asthma. Participants with exposure scores at/below the mean had a twofold increased risk of most LRS. Those with scores above the mean had a three to fourfold increased risk. For scores above the mean, the magnitude of effect was consistently higher for smoke exposure.
Moderately exposed responders may experience health impacts from exposures in later stages of a disaster. Exposure to smoke may have had a greater lower respiratory impact than resuspended dust.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study the geodesics on an invariant surface of a three dimensional Riemannian manifold. The main results are the characterization of geodesic orbits, Clairaut’s relation and its geometric interpretation in some remarkable three dimensional spaces, the local description of the geodesics, and the explicit description of geodesic curves on an invariant surface with constant Gauss curvature.
Journal of Geometry and Physics 12/2009; 61(8-61):1385-1395. DOI:10.1016/j.geomphys.2011.03.002 · 0.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On September 11, 2001, the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse caused massive air pollution, producing variable amounts of lung function reduction in the New York City Fire Department (FDNY) rescue workforce. α₁-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a risk factor for obstructive airway disease.
This prospective, longitudinal cohort study of the first 4 years post-September 11, 2001, investigated the influence of AAT deficiency on adjusted longitudinal spirometric change (FEV₁) in 90 FDNY rescue workers with WTC exposure. Workers with protease inhibitor (Pi) Z heterozygosity were considered moderately AAT deficient. PiS homozygosity or PiS heterozygosity without concomitant PiZ heterozygosity was considered mild deficiency, and PiM homozygosity was considered normal. Alternately, workers had low AAT levels if serum AAT was ≤ 20 μmol/L.
In addition to normal aging-related decline (37 mL/y), significant FEV(1) decline accelerations developed with increasing AAT deficiency severity (110 mL/y for moderate and 32 mL/y for mild) or with low AAT serum levels (49 mL/y). Spirometric rates pre-September 11, 2001, did not show accelerations with AAT deficiency. Among workers with low AAT levels, cough persisted in a significant number of participants at 4 years post-September 11, 2001.
FDNY rescue workers with AAT deficiency had significant spirometric decline accelerations and persistent airway symptoms during the first 4 years after WTC exposure, representing a novel gene-by-environment interaction. Clinically meaningful decline acceleration occurred even with the mild serum AAT level reductions associated with PiS heterozygosity (without concomitant PiZ heterozygosity).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether underlying respiratory disease may be revealed by offline fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) testing among a cohort of New York State (NYS) World Trade Center (WTC) responders in comparison with a control group of similar but unexposed NYS employees, 6 years post-9/11. Participants (92 exposed, 141 unexposed) provided two breath samples that were collected in Mylar bags and sent to a central laboratory for FE(NO) testing. Participants also completed a brief questionnaire. Ambient air pollution was characterized using particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and ozone concentration data from the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation air-monitoring sites closest to each testing site for each day of sample collection. WTC exposure did not appear to be associated with elevated FE(NO) concentrations. FE(NO) concentrations were higher on days with elevated levels of PM(2.5) (≥ 35 μg/m³) and ozone (≥ 0.08 ppm). FE(NO) concentrations were higher in men and lower in smokers. Our results do not suggest an association between WTC exposure and elevated FE(NO) concentrations, 6 years post-9/11, in this moderately exposed cohort of responders. Results do suggest that FE(NO) concentrations were elevated in relation to higher levels of ambient air pollutants. Our results also offer useful reference values for future research involving FE(NO) testing. This study demonstrates that offline FE(NO) testing is a useful method for epidemiological studies requiring collection of samples in the field, potentially over a broad geographic area.
Beiträge zur Klinik der Tuberkulose 06/2011; 189(4):295-303. DOI:10.1007/s00408-011-9307-2 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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