Dimerization of CPAP Orchestrates Centrosome Cohesion Plasticity
ABSTRACT Centrosome cohesion and segregation are accurately regulated to prevent an aberrant separation of duplicated centrosomes and to ensure the correct formation of bipolar spindles by a tight coupling with cell cycle machinery. CPAP is a centrosome protein with five coiled-coil domains and plays an important role in the control of brain size in autosomal recessive primary microcephaly. Previous studies showed that CPAP interacts with tubulin and controls centriole length. Here, we reported that CPAP forms a homodimer during interphase, and the fifth coiled-coil domain of CPAP is required for its dimerization. Moreover, this self-interaction is required for maintaining centrosome cohesion and preventing the centrosome from splitting before the G(2)/M phase. Our biochemical studies show that CPAP forms homodimers in vivo. In addition, both monomeric and dimeric CPAP are required for accurate cell division, suggesting that the temporal dynamics of CPAP homodimerization is tightly regulated during the cell cycle. Significantly, our results provide evidence that CPAP is phosphorylated during mitosis, and this phosphorylation releases its intermolecular interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation orchestrates the dynamics of CPAP molecular interaction and centrosome splitting to ensure genomic stability in cell division.
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- "C-Nap1 (centrosomal Nek2-asso- ciated protein 1) has a role in maintaining this intercentriolar link (and hence the close association of parental centrioles) most likely by acting as the centriolar docking site for rootletin, a major component of the interconnecting fibers (Bahe et al., 2005; Yang et al., 2006). Several other proteins have been implicated in structural or regulatory roles relating to centrosome cohesion, including Cep215, CPAP, dynamin 2, and ␤-catenin (Thompson et al., 2004; Graser et al., 2007b; Bahmanyar et al., 2008; Zhao et al., 2010), suggesting the involvement of multiple mechanisms. However quantitative analysis indicates that C- Nap1 and rootletin are particularly important for the maintenance of centrosome cohesion (Graser et al., 2007b). "
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the human gene ALMS1 cause Alström syndrome, a rare progressive condition characterized by neurosensory degeneration and metabolic defects. ALMS1 protein localizes to the centrosome and has been implicated in the assembly and/or maintenance of primary cilia; however its precise function, distribution within the centrosome, and mechanism of centrosomal recruitment are unknown. The C-terminus of ALMS1 contains a region with similarity to the uncharacterized human protein C10orf90, termed the ALMS motif. Here, we show that a third human protein, the candidate centrosomal protein KIAA1731, contains an ALMS motif and that exogenously expressed KIAA1731 and C10orf90 localize to the centrosome. However, based on deletion analysis of ALMS1, the ALMS motif appears unlikely to be critical for centrosomal targeting. RNAi analyses suggest that C10orf90 and KIAA1731 have roles in primary cilium assembly and centriole formation/stability, respectively. We also show that ALMS1 localizes specifically to the proximal ends of centrioles and basal bodies, where it colocalizes with the centrosome cohesion protein C-Nap1. RNAi analysis reveals markedly diminished centrosomal levels of C-Nap1 and compromised cohesion of parental centrioles in ALMS1-depleted cells. In summary, these data suggest centrosomal functions for C10orf90 and KIAA1731 and new centriole-related functions for ALMS1.Molecular biology of the cell 11/2010; 21(21):3617-29. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E10-03-0246 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Centrosomes are conserved organelles that are essential for accurate cell division and cilium formation. A centrosome consists of a pair of centrioles surrounded by a protein network of pericentriolar material (PCM) that is essential for the centrosome's function. In this study, we show that Sas-4 provides a scaffold for cytoplasmic complexes (named S-CAP), which include CNN, Asl and D-PLP, proteins that are all found in the centrosomes at the vicinity of the centriole. When Sas-4 is absent, nascent procentrioles are unstable and lack PCM, and functional centrosomes are not generated. When Sas-4 is mutated, so that it cannot form S-CAP complexes, centrosomes are present but with dramatically reduced levels of PCM. Finally, purified S-CAP complexes or recombinant Sas-4 can bind centrosomes stripped of PCM, whereas recombinant CNN or Asl cannot. In summary, PCM assembly begins in the cytosol where Sas-4 provides a scaffold for pre-assembled cytoplasmic complexes before tethering of the complexes in a centrosome.Nature Communications 06/2011; 2(1):359. DOI:10.1038/ncomms1367 · 11.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with MCPH (autosomal recessive primary microcephaly) exhibit impaired brain development, presumably due to the compromised function of neuronal progenitors. Seven MCPH loci have been identified, including one that encodes centrosome protein 4.1 associated protein (CPAP; also known as centromere protein J, CENPJ). CPAP is a large coiled-coil protein enriched at the centrosome, a structure that comprises two centrioles and surrounding pericentriolar material (PCM). CPAP depletion impairs centriole formation, whereas CPAP overexpression results in overly long centrioles. The mechanisms by which CPAP MCPH patient mutations affect brain development are not clear. Here, we identify CPAP protein domains crucial for its centriolar localization, as well as for the elongation and the formation of centrioles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that conditions that resemble CPAP MCPH patient mutations compromise centriole formation in tissue culture cells. Using adhesive micropatterns, we reveal that such defects correlate with a randomization of spindle position. Moreover, we demonstrate that the MCPH protein SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (STIL) is also essential for centriole formation and for proper spindle position. Our findings are compatible with the notion that mutations in CPAP and STIL cause MCPH because of aberrant spindle positioning in progenitor cells during brain development.Journal of Cell Science 11/2011; 124(Pt 22):3884-93. DOI:10.1242/jcs.089888 · 5.43 Impact Factor