Systemic and cerebral inflammatory response to umbilical cord occlusions with worsening acidosis in the ovine fetus
ABSTRACT We hypothesized that repetitive umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs) with worsening acidosis will lead to a fetal inflammatory response.
Chronically instrumented fetal sheep underwent a series of UCOs until fetal arterial pH decreased to <7.00. Maternal and fetal blood samples were taken for blood gases/pH and plasma interleukin (IL)-1B and IL-6 levels. Animals were euthanized at 24 hours of recovery with brain tissue processed for subsequent measurement of microglia and mast cell counts.
Repetitive UCOs resulted in a severe degree of fetal acidemia. Fetal plasma IL-1B values were increased approximately 2-fold when measured at maximal fetal acidosis and again at 1-2 hours of recovery. Fetal microglia cells were increased approximately 2-fold in the white matter and hippocampus, while mast cells were increased approximately 2-fold in the choroid plexus and now evident in the thalamus when analyzed at 24 hours recovery.
Repetitive UCOs leading to severe acidemia in the ovine fetus near term will result in an inflammatory response both systemically and locally within the brain.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Martin Gerbert Frasch, May 29, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Barbara D'Angelo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Insults to the developing brain often result in irreparable damage resulting in long-term deficits in motor and cognitive functions. The only treatment today for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborns is hypothermia, which has limited clinical benefit. We have studied changes to the blood-brain barriers (BBB) as well as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in a neonatal model of HIE to further understand the underlying pathologic mechanisms. Nine-day old mice pups, brain roughly equivalent to the near-term human fetus, were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia. Hypoxia-ischemia increased BBB permeability to small and large molecules within hours after the insult, which normalized in the following days. The opening of the BBB was associated with changes to BBB protein expression whereas gene transcript levels were increased showing direct molecular damage to the BBB but also suggesting compensatory mechanisms. Brain pathology was closely related to reductions in rCBF during the hypoxia as well as the areas with compromised BBB showing that these are intimately linked. The transient opening of the BBB after the insult is likely to contribute to the pathology but at the same time provides an opportunity for therapeutics to better reach the infarcted areas in the brain.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 28 January 2015; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.255.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 01/2015; DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.255 · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Impaired blood-brain barrier function represents an important component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the perinatal period. Proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to ischemia-related blood-brain barrier dysfunction. IL-6 increases vascular endothelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro. However, contributions of IL-6 to blood-brain barrier abnormalities have not been examined in the immature brain in vivo. We generated pharmacologic quantities of ovine-specific neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAbs and systemically infused mAbs into fetal sheep at 126 days of gestation after exposure to brain ischemia. Anti-IL-6 mAbs were measured by ELISA in fetal plasma, cerebral cortex, and cerebrospinal fluid, blood-brain barrier permeability was quantified using the blood-to-brain transfer constant in brain regions, and IL-6, tight junction proteins, and plasmalemma vesicle protein (PLVAP) were detected by Western immunoblot. Anti-IL-6 mAb infusions resulted in increases in mAb (P < 0.05) in plasma, brain parenchyma, and cerebrospinal fluid and decreases in brain IL-6 protein. Twenty-four hours after ischemia, anti-IL-6 mAb infusions attenuated ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability and modulated tight junction and PLVAP protein expression in fetal brain. We conclude that inhibiting the effects of IL-6 protein with systemic infusions of neutralizing antibodies attenuates ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability by inhibiting IL-6 and modulates tight junction proteins after ischemia.-Zhang, J., Sadowska, G. B., Chen, X., Park, Y. S., Kim, J. -E., Bodge, C. A., Cummings, E., Lim, Y. -P., Makeyev, O., Besio, W. G., Gaitanis, J., Banks, W. A., Stonestreet, B. S. Anti-IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus. © FASEB.The FASEB Journal 01/2015; 29(5). DOI:10.1096/fj.14-258822 · 5.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that repetitive umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs) leading to severe acidemia will stimulate a placental and thereby fetal inflammatory response which will be exacerbated by chronic hypoxemia and low-grade bacterial infection. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep served as controls or underwent repetitive UCOs for up to 4 hours or until fetal arterial pH was <7.00. Normoxic-UCO and hypoxic-UCO fetuses had arterial O2 saturation pre-UCOs of >55% and <55%, respectively, while lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-UCO fetuses received LPS intra-amniotic (2 mg/h) starting 1 hour pre-UCOs. Fetal plasma and amniotic fluid were sampled for interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-1β. Animals were euthanized at 48 hours of recovery with placental cotyledons processed for measurement of macrophage, neutrophil, and mast cell counts. Repetitive UCOs resulted in severe fetal acidemia with pH approaching 7.00 for all 3 UCO groups. Neutrophils, while unchanged within the cotyledon fetal and intermediate zones, were ∼2-fold higher within the zona intima for all 3 UCO groups. However, no differences were observed in macrophage counts among the treatment groups and no cotyledon mast cells were seen. Fetal plasma and amniotic fluid cytokines remained little changed post-UCOs and/or at 1 and 48 hours of recovery in the normoxic-UCO and hypoxic-UCO groups but increased several fold in the LPS-UCO group with IL-6 plasma values at 1 hour recovery highly correlated with the nadir pH attained (r = -.97). As such, repetitive UCOs with severe acidemia can induce a placental inflammatory response and more so with simulated low-grade infection and likely contributing to cytokine release in the umbilical circulation. © The Author(s) 2015.Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) 04/2015; DOI:10.1177/1933719115580994 · 2.18 Impact Factor