Regulation of heme synthesis and proteasomal activity by copper: possible implications for Wilson's disease.
ABSTRACT Wilson's disease (Wd) is a genetic disorder resulting in Cu2+ accumulation, and is caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene, the copper transporter. In vivo studies show a correlation between Cu2+ accumulation and malfunction of the heme biosynthesis pathway. In this study, we describe multiple effects of Cu2+ accumulation on heme synthesis, which, in turn, affect proteasomal activity. Cu2+ toxicity was examined in two hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B, with Hep3B cells containing an integrated hepatitis B virus genome. Exposure of HepG2 and Hep3B cells to Cu2+ inhibited the enzymes PBGD and ALAD of the heme synthesis pathway and, in parallel, upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Proto-porphyrin IX (PpIX) and the heme pool were reduced as a result of these processes. PpIX synthesis was found to be lower in cells expressing the mutant ATP7B (P1134P), compared to those expressing the WT enzyme. Proteasomal activity was inhibited under Cu2+ treatment in HepG2 cells; however, Cu2+ induced marked proteosomal acceleration in Hep3B cells. Under these conditions, Ub-conjugated proteins were gradually accumulated, whereas treatment with bathocuproine disulfonic acid (BCS), a Cu2+ chelator, reversed this effect. In conclusion, our data suggest that copper downregulates the heme synthesis pathway in hepatocellular cells and further reduces it in the presence of mutated ATP7B.
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ABSTRACT: Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2α upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter - Dmt1) and ferric reductase - Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2α-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2α as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59538. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We propose a conclusive difference observed between the excitation conditions required to observe porphyrins and copper-metallothioneins in cells and/or tissues using an ordinary fluorescence microscope. We have emphasized the importance of examining the spectral properties of the emissions to avoid any serious mistakes such as confusing porphyrins with copper-metallothioneins in the liver and kidneys. However, microspectrophotometry is not a conventional method for either histochemical, cytochemical, or pathological studies because microspectrophotometers are both expensive and difficult to operate. Therefore, we demonstrate a simple comparative method using ordinary excitation filter arrangements. When using our technique, it becomes possible to optically discriminate more accurately between the autofluorescence properties arising from porphyrins and those arising from copper-metallothioneins. We would like to name our simple technique "Triple Observation Method (TOM)".Journal of Fluorescence 11/2010; 21(2):835-9. · 1.79 Impact Factor