Genotyping of Mexican Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii isolates by PCR-fingerprinting.
ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis in México is caused by both species of the Cryptococcus species complex i.e., Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. The current study was aimed to determine genetic variability of 72 Mexican clinical isolates using PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. PCR fingerprinting revealed 55 VNI, five VNII, three VNIII, one VNIV, two VGI, two VGII, two VGIII and two VGIV isolates among those studied. The results show that most cryptococcosis cases in México are AIDS related and are caused by C. neoformans var. grubii, genotypes VNI and VNII. In addition this study revealed for the first time the presence of genotypes VNIV and VGII among Mexican clinical isolates. The present data show that all genotypes that have been described for the Cryptococcus species complex are found in México, indicating a much wider geographic distribution of genotypes than previously reported. The molecular analysis of Mexican cryptococcal isolates generated PCR-fingerprinting patterns which will provide references for future typing studies to allow the integration of Mexican cryptococcal genotypes into the ongoing global genotyping study of the Cryptococcus species complex.
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ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are closely related pathogenic basidiomycetous yeasts in which six haploid genotypic groups have been distinguished. The two haploid genotypic groups of C. neoformans have been described as variety grubii and variety neoformans. The four C. gattii genotypic groups have, however, not been described as separate taxa. One hundred and seventeen isolates representing all six haploid genotypic groups were selected for multi-locus sequence typing using six loci to investigate if the isolates consistently formed monophyletic lineages. Two monophyletic lineages, corresponding to varieties grubii and neoformans, were consistently present within C. neoformans, supporting the current classification. In addition, four monophyletic lineages corresponding to the previously described genotypic groups were consistently found within C. gattii, indicating that these lineages should be considered different taxa as well.Fungal Genetics and Biology 05/2008; 45(4):400-21. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A total of 53 Cryptococcus neoformans strains, including clinical and environmental Brazilian isolates, were tested for their susceptibilities to amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole. The tests were performed according to the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards recommendations (document M27-P). In general, there was a remarkable homogeneity of results for all strains, and comparable MICs were found for environmental and clinical isolates. This paper represents the first contribution in which susceptibility data for Brazilian C. neoformans isolates are provided.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/1996; 40(3):822-4. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are yeasts that cause meningoencephalitis, but that differ in host range and geographical distribution. Cryptococcus neoformans occurs world-wide and mostly infects immunocompromised patients, whereas C. gattii occurs mainly in (sub)tropical regions and infects healthy individuals. Anomalous C. neoformans strains were isolated from patients. These strains were found to be monokaryotic, and diploid or aneuploid. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and sequence analyses indicated that AFLP genotypes 2 (C. neoformans) and 4 (C. gattii) were present. The strains were serologically BD. Mating- and serotype-specific PCR reactions showed that the strains were MATa-serotype D/MATalpha-serotype B. This study is the first to describe naturally occurring hybrids between C. neoformans and C. gattii.FEMS Yeast Research 07/2006; 6(4):599-607. · 2.46 Impact Factor