Moderators of the Relationship Between Internalized Homophobia and Risky Sexual Behavior in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Meta-Analysis
ABSTRACT Research on internalized homophobia (IH) has consistently linked it to both mental and physical health outcomes, while research on its relationships with other variables has been inconsistent. Some research and theory support the association between IH and risky sexual behavior, but much of this research has been plagued by methodological issues, varying measures, and has produced inconsistent findings. Coming to a better understanding of the utility of IH as a potential mechanism or predictor of risky sex in men who have sex with men (MSM) may help to inform future studies of HIV risk in this population as well as the development of prevention interventions. The current study used hierarchical linear modeling to perform meta-analysis combining effect sizes across multiple studies of the relationships between IH and risky sexual behavior. Additionally, the use of multilevel modeling techniques allowed for the evaluation of the moderating effects of age, year of data collection, and publication type on this relationship. Sixteen studies were meta-analyzed for the relationship between IH and risky sexual behavior (N = 2,837), revealing a small overall effect size for this relationship. However, a significant moderating effect was found for the year of data collection, such that the correlation between these two variables has decreased over time. The current utility of this construct for understanding sexual risk taking of MSM is called into question.
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ABSTRACT: To explore demographic, behavioral and psychosocial risk factors for HIV infection in South African MSM we recruited 480 MSM (aged 18 and 44 years) using respondent-driven sampling. Data were collected through individual computer-assisted face-to-face interviews. Participants were tested for HIV. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence is 30.1 % (unadjusted 35.6 %). Few participants had ever engaged in both receptive and insertive anal sex; sex with women was frequently reported. Independent demographic and behavioral correlates of HIV infection include age, education, number of male sexual partners, ever having been forced to have sex, and ever having engaged in transactional sex; engagement in sex with women was a protective factor. Psychosocial risk factors independently associated with HIV infection were feminine identification, internalized homophobia, and hazardous drinking. Our findings confirm what has been found in other studies, but also suggest that the dynamics and context of sexual transmission among MSM in South Africa differ from those among MSM in Western countries.AIDS and Behavior 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10461-015-1067-1 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between sexual identity, depression, self-esteem, HIV risk behaviors, HIV status, and internalized homophobia in Black men who have sex with men. Results demonstrated a positive relationship between depression, HIV risk behaviors, and internalized homophobia; a negative relationship with self-esteem; and differences in internalized homophobia by HIV status (i.e., positive, negative, or unknown). Counseling recommendations are provided for working with this population.04/2015; 93(2). DOI:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2015.00199.x
01/2014; University of Antwerp.