Glucocorticoids suppress growth in neonatal cardiomyocytes co-expressing AT(2) and AT(1) angiotensin receptors.
ABSTRACT Perinatal glucocorticoid treatment is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but the cellular mechanism is controversial. An underlying interaction between glucocorticoids and the renin-angiotensin system may be important, but whether glucocorticoids modulate angiotensin II (AngII)-dependent cardiomyocyte growth responses in the neonate has not been investigated. Objectives: The major aim of this investigation was to determine whether glucocorticoids modulate the neonatal cardiomyocyte growth response to AngII. In particular we sought evidence to determine whether angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor co-expression with angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor is of specific importance in this modulatory function.
In this study, we used AT(1) and AT(2) receptor-expressing adenoviruses (Ad-AT(1) and Ad-AT(2)) in a well-defined in vitro neonatal cardiomyocyte culture model to assess whether glucocorticoids affect cardiomyocyte growth responses (i.e. total protein content).
Following addition of AngII (0.1 micromol/l) to neonatal cardiomyocytes infected with Ad-AT(1) alone, a significant growth response was measured (133.2 +/- 4.8%). Expression of Ad-AT(2) alone induced a approximately 20% increase in total cellular protein content, which was unaffected by addition of AngII. Neither corticosterone (1 micromol/l) nor dexamethasone (1 micromol/l) had any significant effect on the AT(1)- or AT(2)-mediated growth responses. In contrast, the growth response to AngII was augmented following co-expression of AT(2) and AT(1) receptors (149.2 +/- 4.2%), which was reduced by approximately 20% in the presence of either corticosterone or dexamethasone (p < 0.05).
The present study provides novel evidence that glucocorticoids suppress neonatal cardiomyocyte growth responsiveness when AT(2 )and AT(1) receptor subtypes are co-expressed.
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ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid treatment in preterm babies to prevent chronic lung disease causes myocardial hypertrophy and increased myocardial protein content. Although these changes are thought to be transient, there is evidence that dexamethasone (DEX) induces permanent myocardial abnormalities as well. We investigated whether a therapeutic course of neonatal DEX in rat pups produces anatomic and biochemical alterations in rat hearts during adult life. Twenty-four rat pups were treated with DEX on d 1, 2, and 3 (0.5, 0.3, and 0.1 micro g/g) of life, with doses proportional to those used in preterm babies. Twenty-four control pups were treated with saline. At d 7, wk 8, or wk 45 (n = 8 per group) rats were killed. The anatomic parameters measured were body weight (Bw, in grams), heart (myocardial) weight (Hw, in milligrams), and the Hw:Bw ratio. Myocardial total protein (Prot) and DNA content were determined, and the Prot:DNA ratio was calculated. Histopathology and morphometry were performed on 45-wk-old rat hearts. In DEX-treated rat pups, at d 7, Bw and Hw were lower and the Hw:Bw ratio was increased. DNA content was lower, Prot higher, and Prot:DNA ratio was increased. In 8-wk-old rats Bw, Hw, DNA content, Prot content or Prot:DNA ratio did not differ between groups, but the Prot:DNA ratio still tended to be higher in DEX-treated rats. In 45-wk-old rats Hw and Hw:Bw ratio were significantly lower and Prot:DNA ratio higher in DEX-treated rats. Histopathologic analysis showed larger cardiomyocyte volume, length, and width, indicating hypertrophy, and increased collagen, indicating early degeneration of individual myocytes. In conclusion, neonatal DEX treatment in rat pups causes a permanent decrease in heart weight, as well as hypertrophy and early degeneration of cardiomyocytes during adulthoodPediatr.Res. 01/2002; 52(6).
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ABSTRACT: The role of cortisol in regulating cardiac myocyte growth in the near-term fetal sheep is unknown. We hypothesized that cortisol would suppress cardiomyocyte proliferation and stimulate cardiomyocyte binucleation and enlargement, signs of terminal differentiation. Cardiomyocyte dimensions and percent binucleation were determined in isolated cardiac myocytes from seven cortisol-treated and seven control fetuses; percentage of myocytes positive for Ki-67 was determined in an additional four cortisol-treated and four control hearts. Cortisol was infused into the circumflex coronary artery at subpressor rates (0.5 microg/kg.min, 7 d). Cortisol infusion had no hemodynamic effects, compared with controls or pretreatment conditions. Cortisol treatment increased heart weight (44.0 +/- 8.7 g vs. control, 34.9 +/- 9.1 g, P < 0.05). Heart to body weight ratio was greater in treated hearts, compared with controls (10.3 +/- 1.9 vs. 7.7 +/- 0.9 g/kg, P < 0.01). Ventricular myocyte length, width, and percent binucleation were not different between groups. The proportion of treated myocytes in the cell cycle staining for Ki-67 was higher in the left ventricle (5.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.7 +/- 0.4%, P < 0.005) and right ventricle (4.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 3.7 +/- 0.7%, P < 0.05), compared with controls. Wet weight to dry weight ratios from cortisol-treated and control hearts were not different. In conclusion, whereas cortisol infused into the fetal sheep heart has no effect on cardiomyocyte size or maturational state, it stimulates entry of cardiomyocytes in the cell cycle. Thus, increases in fetal heart mass associated with subpressor doses of cortisol are due to cardiomyocyte proliferation and not hypertrophic growth.Endocrinology 09/2006; 147(8):3643-9. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 17 fetal sheep aged 129 days, the effects of large-dose infusions of cortisol (72.1 mg/day for 2-3 days) on proliferation, binucleation, and hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes, cardiac expression of angiotensinogen, angiotensin receptor subtypes 1 and 2, Glut-1, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, proteins of the MAPK pathways and calcineurin were studied. Cortisol levels were 8.7 +/- 2.3 nM (SE) in 8 control and 1,028 +/- 189 nM in 9 treated fetuses (P < 0.001). Cortisol had no effect on myocyte binucleation. Left ventricular free wall (LVFW) uni- and binucleated myocytes were larger in cortisol-treated fetuses (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). Cortisol-treated fetuses had higher right ventricular free wall (RVFW) and LVFW angiotensinogen (Aogen) mRNA levels (treated: 2.30 +/- 0.37, n = 8 and 2.05 +/- 0.45, n = 7 vs. control: 0.94 +/- 0.12, n = 8 and 0.67 +/- 0.09, n = 7, P < 0.02). Levels of the glucose transporter Glut-1 mRNA were lower in the LVFW of treated fetuses (0.83 +/- 0.23 vs. 1.47 +/- 0.30 in control, P < 0.05, n = 7, 8). The higher the cortisol level, the greater the Aogen mRNA level (RVFW, r = 0.61, P < 0.01, n = 16; LVFW, r = 0.83, P < 0.0003, n = 14). There were no other changes in mRNA levels nor in levels of extracellular kinase, JNK, p38, their phosphorylated forms, and calcineurin. Thus high levels of cortisol such as occur after birth do not affect fetal cardiac myocyte binucleation or number but are associated with higher levels of ventricular Aogen mRNA, lower levels of Glut-1 mRNA, and hypertrophy of LVFW myocytes. These effects could impact on postnatal cardiac development.AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 04/2005; 288(3):R567-74. · 3.28 Impact Factor