Article

Anatomy of the circle of Willis and blood flow in the brain-feeding vasculature in prematurely born infants.

Department of Neonatology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital/University Medical Centre, NL-3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands. B.vanKooij-4 @ umcutrecht.nl
Neonatology (Impact Factor: 2.57). 10/2009; 97(3):235-41. DOI: 10.1159/000253754
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown a disrupted development of cerebral blood vessels at term-equivalent age in prematurely born infants.
To assess the anatomy of the circle of Willis in preterm neonates (gestational age 25-31 weeks) at term-equivalent age and to evaluate the relation between anatomic variations and blood flow through the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) and basilar artery (BA).
In 72 preterm neonates, flow measurements (ml/min) were obtained with 2-D phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at term-equivalent age. Time-of-flight MRA was used to assess the circle of Willis for a dominant A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery or a fetal-type posterior cerebral artery. Differences in flow were assessed with ANOVA.
In our cohort, 53/72 (74%) neonates showed a variant type of the circle of Willis. The flow in the ICA at the side of a dominant A1 segment (43.3 ml/min) was significantly increased compared to the flow in the contralateral ICA (33.0 ml/min; p = 0.009) and tended to be higher than in the ICA in children with a normal anterior anatomy (38.4 ml/min; p = 0.1). The flow in the BA was highest in neonates with a normal configuration of the posterior part of the circle of Willis (32.6 ml/min) compared to children with a unilateral (25.3 ml/min; p = 0.002) or bilateral fetal-type posterior cerebral artery (18.6 ml/min; p < 0.001).
Preterm neonates show a high prevalence of variant types of the circle of Willis at term-equivalent age. A relation could be demonstrated between variations in the circle of Willis and the flow in the ICA and BA.

1 Bookmark
 · 
185 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the literature, there are descriptions of morphological types of the cerebral arterial circle (CAC) of different human populations around the world, but not the Serbian population. This additionally inspired the authors to present the results of previous and current researches of CAC's configuration in the prenatal, as well as in the postnatal period. METHOD: The study was performed on CACs of 190 human fetuses and 143 adult cadavers. The caliber and configuration of fetal vessels were examined under the operating microscope, while the same of adults were studied using the ImageJ. Statistical analysis of CACs vessels' calibers was performed. Classification into one of CAC morphological types was based on the presence of hypoplasia of corresponding vessel(s). RESULTS: There was not only significant difference of the three communicating arteries calibers before and beyond the 16th week of gestation. Calibers of the right pre-communicating part of the posterior cerebral artery and right cerebral part of the internal carotid artery were significantly higher in male than in female adults. There were 13 morphological types of CACs from the prenatal to the postnatal period. Most frequent CAC types were the type I (normal CAC) prenatally and type IV (unilateral hypoplasia of the posterior communicating artery) in the postnatal period. There were not relationships between the cerebral cause of death and a presence of aneurysm. CONCLUSION: Results of this study will be the basis for future investigation of CACs according to the same or different ages and causes of disease and/or death.
    Child s Nervous System 05/2013; · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The assessment of both geometry and hemodynamics of the intracranial arteries has important diagnostic value in internal carotid occlusion, sickle cell disease, and aneurysm development. Provided that signal to noise ratio (SNR) and resolution are high, these factors can be measured with time-resolved three-dimensional phase contrast MRI. However, within a given scan time duration, an increase in resolution causes a decrease in SNR and vice versa, hampering flow quantification and visualization. To study the benefits of higher SNR at 7 T, three-dimensional phase contrast MRI in the Circle of Willis was performed at 3 T and 7 T in five volunteers. Results showed that the SNR at 7 T was roughly 2.6 times higher than at 3 T. Therefore, segmentation of small vessels such as the anterior and posterior communicating arteries succeeded more frequently at 7 T. Direction of flow and smoothness of streamlines in the anterior and posterior communicating arteries were more pronounced at 7 T. Mean velocity magnitude values in the vessels of the Circle of Willis were higher at 3 T due to noise compared to 7 T. Likewise, areas of the vessels were lower at 3 T. In conclusion, the gain in SNR at 7 T compared to 3 T allows for improved flow visualization and quantification in intracranial arteries. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 05/2012; · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Volumetric measurements of neonatal brain tissues may be used as a biomarker for later neurodevelopmental outcome. We propose an automatic method for probabilistic brain segmentation in neonatal MRIs. In an IRB-approved study axial T1- and T2-weighted MR images were acquired at term-equivalent age for a preterm cohort of 108 neonates. A method for automatic probabilistic segmentation of the images into eight cerebral tissue classes was developed: cortical and central grey matter, unmyelinated and myelinated white matter, cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles and in the extra cerebral space, brainstem and cerebellum. Segmentation is based on supervised pixel classification using intensity values and spatial positions of the image voxels. The method was trained and evaluated using leave-one-out experiments on seven images, for which an expert had set a reference standard manually. Subsequently, the method was applied to the remaining 101 scans, and the resulting segmentations were evaluated visually by three experts. Finally, volumes of the eight segmented tissue classes were determined for each patient. The Dice similarity coefficients of the segmented tissue classes, except myelinated white matter, ranged from 0.75 to 0.92. Myelinated white matter was difficult to segment and the achieved Dice coefficient was 0.47. Visual analysis of the results demonstrated accurate segmentations of the eight tissue classes. The probabilistic segmentation method produced volumes that compared favorably with the reference standard. The proposed method provides accurate segmentation of neonatal brain MR images into all given tissue classes, except myelinated white matter. This is the one of the first methods that distinguishes cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles from cerebrospinal fluid in the extracerebral space. This method might be helpful in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome and useful for evaluating neuroprotective clinical trials in neonates.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e81895. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
73 Downloads
Available from
May 16, 2014