A Novel Role of Interleukin-13 Receptor 2 in Pancreatic Cancer Invasion and Metastasis
ABSTRACT Whereas interleukin-13 receptor alpha2 chain (IL-13Ralpha2) is overexpressed in a variety of human solid cancers including pancreatic cancer, we investigated its significance in cancer invasion and metastasis. We used two pancreatic cancer cell lines, IL-13Ralpha2-negative HPAF-II and IL-13Ralpha2-positive HS766T, and generated IL-13Ralpha2 stably transfected HPAF-II as well as IL-13Ralpha2 RNA interference knocked-down HS766T cells. Ability of invasion and signal transduction was compared between IL-13Ralpha2-negative and IL-13Ralpha2-positive cells and tumor metastasis was assessed in murine model for human pancreatic cancer with orthotopic implantation of tumors. IL-13 treatment enhanced cell invasion in IL-13Ralpha2-positive cancer cell lines but not in IL-13Ralpha2-negative cell lines. Furthermore, gene transfer of IL-13Ralpha2 in negative cell lines enhanced invasion, whereas its silencing downmodulated invasion of pancreatic cell lines in a Matrigel invasion assay. In vivo study revealed that IL-13Ralpha2-positive cancer metastasized to lymph nodes, liver, and peritoneum at a significantly higher rate compared with IL-13Ralpha2-negative tumors. The expression of IL-13Ralpha2 in metastatic lesions was found to be increased compared with primary tumors, and mice with IL-13Ralpha2-positive cancer displayed cachexia and poor prognosis. Invasion and metastasis also correlated with increased matrix metalloproteinase protease activity in these cells. Mechanistically, IL-13 activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and activator protein-1 nuclear factors in IL-13Ralpha2-positive pancreatic cancer cell lines but not in IL-13Ralpha2-negative cell lines. Taken together, our results show for the first time that IL-13 can signal through IL-13Ralpha2 in pancreatic cancer cells and IL-13Ralpha2 may serve as a prognostic biomarker of invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer.
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- "An immunohistochemical analysis of human tissues found IL-13Rα2 overexpression in 71% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma samples in comparison to normal pancreas controls (142). Indeed, experiments in an orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer suggest that IL-13Rα2 is an important mediator of the pro-tumor effects of IL-13, including activation of AP-1 growth signals, production of immunomodulatory cytokines such as TGF-β, and promotion of metastasis (58, 142). Similar IL-13Rα2-dependent effects have been demonstrated in other cancer models, including ovarian carcinoma (59), colorectal cancer (57), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (143), and malignant glioma (144). "
ABSTRACT: Cancer immunotherapy through manipulation of the immune system holds great potential for the treatment of human cancers. However, recent trials targeting the negative immune regulators CTLA4, PD-1 and PD-L1 demonstrated that clinically significant antitumor responses were often associated with the induction of autoimmune toxicity. This finding suggests that the same immune mechanisms that elicit autoimmunity may also contribute to the destruction of tumors. Given that the immunological identity of tumors might be largely an immunoprivileged self, autoimmunity may not represent a wholly undesirable outcome in the context of cancer immunotherapy. Rather, targeted killing of cancer cells and autoimmune damage to healthy tissues may be intricately linked through molecular mechanisms, in particular inflammatory cytokine signaling. On the other hand, since chronic inflammation is a well-recognized condition that promotes tumor development, it appears that autoimmunity can be a “double agent” in mediating either pro-tumor or antitumor effects. This review surveys the tumor-promoting and tumoricidal activities of several prominent cytokines: IFN-γ, TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-17, IL-23, IL-4, and IL-13, produced by three major subsets of T helper cells that interact with innate immune cells. Many of these cytokines exert divergent and seemingly contradictory effects on cancer development in different human and animal models, suggesting a high degree of context dependence in their functions. We hypothesize that these inflammatory cytokines could mediate a feedback loop of autoimmunity, antitumor immunity and tumorigenesis. Understanding the diverse and paradoxical roles of cytokines from autoimmune responses in the setting of cancer will advance the long-term goal of improving cancer immunotherapy, while minimizing the hazards of immune-mediated tissue damage and the possibility of de novo tumorigenesis, through proper monitoring and preventive measures.Frontiers in Immunology 03/2014; 5:116. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00116
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- "In our recent study on the role of IL-13Rα2 in pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis, we demonstrated that IL-13Rα2–positive cancer metastasized to lymph nodes, liver, and peritoneum at a significantly higher rate compared with IL-13Rα2–negative tumors. The level of IL-13Rα2 expression in metastatic lesion was higher compared to the primary tumors . Though we did not investigate the presence of metastasis in this model, the pancreatic tumor cells collected from lymph nodes metastasis were much more sensitive to IL-13-PE in vitro than compared with primary tumor cells indicating higher level of IL-13Rα2 in metastatic lesion. "
ABSTRACT: The sixth leading class of cancer worldwide is head and neck cancer, which typically arise within the squamous epithelium of the oral mucosa. Human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is known to be difficult to treat and has only a 50% five-year survival rate. With HNSCC, novel therapeutics are needed along with a means of rapidly screening anti-cancer agents in vivo, such as mouse models. In order to develop new animal models of cancer to test safety and efficacy of novel therapeutic agents for human HNSCC, tumors resembling clinical cases of human HNSCC were induced in the head and neck epithelium of a genetically engineered mouse model. This mouse model was generated by conditional deletion of two tumor suppressors, Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor 1 (TGFβRI) and Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN), in the oral epithelium. We discovered that the tumors derived from these Tgfbr1/Pten double conditional knockout (2cKO) mice over-expressed IL-13Rα2, a high affinity receptor for IL-13 that can function as a tumor antigen. To demonstrate a proof-of-concept that targeted therapy against IL-13Rα2 expression would have any antitumor efficacy in this spontaneous tumor model, these mice were treated systemically with IL-13-PE, a recombinant immunotoxin consisting of IL-13 fused to the Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO mice when treated with IL-13-PE displayed significantly increased survival when compared to the untreated control mice. The untreated mice exhibited weight loss, particularly with the rapid onset of tongue tumors, but the treated mice gained weight while on IL-13-PE therapy and showed no clinical signs of toxicity due to the immunotoxin. Expression of IL-13Rα2 in tumors was significantly decreased with IL-13-PE treatment as compared to the controls and the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) was also significantly reduced in the spleens of the IL-13-PE treated mice. Our study demonstrates that the Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO mouse model of human HNSCC is a useful model for assessing antitumor activity of new cancer therapeutic agents, and that IL-13-PE has therapeutic potential to treat human head and neck cancer.Journal of Translational Medicine 02/2013; 11:45. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-11-45 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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- "Cell invasion was assayed in BD BioCoat Matrigel invasion chambers (BD Biosciences; 24 wells, 8 µm pore size) as described previously . Briefly, cells were incubated with different concentrations of cysteamine (0–5 mM) for 24 hours. "
ABSTRACT: Cysteamine, an anti-oxidant aminothiol, is the treatment of choice for nephropathic cystinosis, a rare lysosomal storage disease. Cysteamine is a chemo-sensitization and radioprotection agent and its antitumor effects have been investigated in various tumor cell lines and chemical induced carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated whether cysteamine has anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects in transplantable human pancreatic cancer, an aggressive metastatic disease. Cysteamine's anti-invasion effects were studied by matrigel invasion and cell migration assays in 10 pancreatic cancer cell lines. To study mechanism of action, we examined cell viability and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity in the cysteamine-treated cells. We also examined cysteamine's anti-metastasis effect in two orthotopic murine models of human pancreatic cancer by measuring peritoneal metastasis and survival of animals. Cysteamine inhibited both migration and invasion of all ten pancreatic cancer cell lines at concentrations (<25 mM) that caused no toxicity to cells. It significantly decreased MMPs activity (IC(50) 38-460 µM) and zymographic gelatinase activity in a dose dependent manner in vitro and in vivo; while mRNA and protein levels of MMP-9, MMP-12 and MMP-14 were slightly increased using the highest cysteamine concentration. In vivo, cysteamine significantly decreased metastasis in two established pancreatic tumor models, although it did not affect the size of primary tumors. Additionally, cysteamine prolonged survival of mice in a dose-dependent manner without causing any toxicity. Similar to the in vitro results, MMP activity was significantly decreased in animal tumors treated with cysteamine. Cysteamine had no clinical or preclinical adverse effects in the host even at the highest dose. Our results suggest that cysteamine, an agent with a proven safety profile, may be useful for inhibition of metastasis and prolonging the survival of a host with pancreatic cancer.PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e34437. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0034437 · 3.23 Impact Factor