Circadian expression of adiponectin and its receptors in human adipose tissue.
ABSTRACT Adiponectin is one of the most clinically relevant cytokines associated with obesity. However, circadian rhythmicity of adiponectin in human adipose tissue (AT) has not been analyzed. To assess whether the mRNA levels of adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) might show daily circadian rhythms in visceral and sc fat explants obtained from morbid obese women, visceral and sc abdominal AT biopsies (n = 6) were obtained from morbidly obese women (body mass index >or=40 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric variables were measured and fasting plasma glucose, lipid, and lipoprotein concentrations were analyzed. To investigate rhythmic expression pattern, AT explants were cultured during 24 h, and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 0800, 1400, 2000, and 0200 h, using quantitative real-time PCR. All genes investigated showed a circadian rhythmicity and oscillated accurately and independently of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in both AT explants (P < 0.05). Adiponectin gene expression fluctuated in the same phase as its receptors. Correlation analyses between the genetic circadian oscillation and components of the metabolic syndrome revealed that adiposity and abdominal obesity correlated with a decrease in adiponectin and adiponectin receptors ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 amplitude (P < 0.05). Visceral fat showed a trend toward a phase delay and dampening of the mRNA amplitude of adiponectin as compared with sc fat. The mRNA expression of adiponectin and its receptors showed 24-h rhythmicity in human AT from morbidly obese patients.
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Article: Circadian gene variants in cancer.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Humans as diurnal beings are active during the day and rest at night. This daily oscillation of behavior and physiology is driven by an endogenous circadian clock not environmental cues. In modern societies, changes in lifestyle have led to a frequent disruption of the endogenous circadian homeostasis leading to increased risk of various diseases including cancer. The clock is operated by the feedback loops of circadian genes and controls daily physiology by coupling cell proliferation and metabolism, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis in peripheral tissues with physical activity, energy homeostasis, immune and neuroendocrine functions at the organismal level. Recent studies have revealed that defects in circadian genes due to targeted gene ablation in animal models or single nucleotide polymorphism, deletion, deregulation and/or epigenetic silencing in humans are closely associated with increased risk of cancer. In addition, disruption of circadian rhythm can disrupt the molecular clock in peripheral tissues in the absence of circadian gene mutations. Circadian disruption has recently been recognized as an independent cancer risk factor. Further study of the mechanism of clock-controlled tumor suppression will have a significant impact on human health by improving the efficiencies of cancer prevention and treatment.Annals of medicine. 06/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial process induced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and recent evidence has highlighted that circadian disruption and sleep loss contribute to disease pathogenesis. Emerging work in experimental genetic models has provided insight into the mechanistic basis for clock disruption in disease. Indeed, disruption of the clock system perturbs both neuroendocrine pathways within the hypothalamus important in feeding and energetics, in addition to peripheral tissues involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. This review illustrates the impact of molecular clock disruptions at the level of both brain and behavior and peripheral tissues, with a focus on how such dysregulation in turn impacts lipid and glucose homeostasis, inflammation and cardiovascular function. New insight into circadian biology may ultimately lead to improved therapeutics for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in humans.Diabetes & Metabolism 01/2014; · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythms (approximately 24h) are widely characterized at molecular level and their generation is acknowledged to originate from oscillations in expression of several clock genes and from regulation of their protein products. While general entrainment of organisms to environmental light-dark cycles is mainly achieved through the master clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mammals, this molecular clockwork is functional in several organs and tissues. Some studies have suggested that disruption of the circadian system (chronodisruption (CD)) may be causal for manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. This review summarizes (1) how molecular clocks coordinate metabolism and their specific role in the adipocyte; (2) the genetic aspects of and scientific evidence for obesity as a chronobiological illness; and (3) CD and its causes and pathological consequences. Finally, ideas about use of chronobiology for the treatment of obesity are discussed.Endocrinología y Nutrición 01/2012;