A novel biosensor for the detection of zearalenone family mycotoxins in milk
ABSTRACT In this study, a method for detecting estrogenic mycotoxin residues in milk was developed utilizing bioluminescent whole-cell biosensors. Milk products of various compositions were spiked with the estrogenic mycotoxins zearalenone and its metabolites zearalanone, alpha-zearalanol, beta-zearalanol, alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol. The estrogenic response was detected by a whole-cell biosensor based on a genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that in the presence of an estrogenic compound produces firefly luciferase-enzyme and further light emission within a system provided with D-luciferin substrate. The results show that the yeast sensor reacts to mycotoxins with typical sigmoidal response at nanomolar concentrations. The response differs in different milk products with regard to the fat content of the milk. Due to short assay time of less than 3h and automation the approach can be used as a bioavailability and activity screening method prior to more detailed chemical analysis.
Food and Agricultural Immunology 01/2013; 25(2):186-199. DOI:10.1080/09540105.2012.759540 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe an electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of the growth promoter α-zearalanol in bovine serum. The sensing scheme is based on a nanocomposite consisting of gold nanoparticles electrodeposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes that were modified with poly (vinylpyridine) through in-situ polymerization. The electrodeposition of the gold nanoparticles enlarges the surface available for immobilization of antibodies against α-zearalanol. The nanocomposite film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The calibration plot has a linear response in the concentrations range from 0.05 to 50 ng mL−1, and the detection limit is 16 pg mL−1. The time required for analysis is 12 min only which compares quite favorably with the time (90 min) required by the conventional ELISA. The method exhibits good selectivity, stability and reproducibility for detecting α-zearalanol in the livestock production. Graphical Abstract Schematic representation of the immunocapture procedure and subsequent determination of α-zearalanol.Microchimica Acta 02/2015; 182(3-4). DOI:10.1007/s00604-014-1355-x · 3.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mycotoxins can cause toxicity when ingested by humans and animals. Although the rumen is supposed to be a barrier against mycotoxins, some studies demonstrate that carry-over of mycotoxins to milk is possible. Different studies have found mycotoxin levels in animal milk, mainly related to contaminated feed for ruminants. Aflatoxin M1 is the most studied mycotoxin in milk and levels exceeding the EU maximum level for this mycotoxin in this matrix (0.050 μg/kg) have been found. Maximum levels in milk for other mycotoxins have not been established; however ochratoxin A, aflatoxins G1, G2, B1, B2 and M2, fumonisin B1, cyclopiazonic acid, zearalenone and its metabolites and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol have also been found in milk samples. Taking into account that multi-exposure to mycotoxins is the most likely scenario and co-occurrence of mycotoxins could affect their toxicological effects in humans and animals, there is a need to determine the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in milk. Full text can be downloaded from: http://hdl.handle.net/10171/37569Food Control 07/2015; 53:163-176. DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.01.020 · 2.82 Impact Factor