In this study, a method for detecting estrogenic mycotoxin residues in milk was developed utilizing bioluminescent whole-cell biosensors. Milk products of various compositions were spiked with the estrogenic mycotoxins zearalenone and its metabolites zearalanone, alpha-zearalanol, beta-zearalanol, alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol. The estrogenic response was detected by a whole-cell biosensor based on a genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that in the presence of an estrogenic compound produces firefly luciferase-enzyme and further light emission within a system provided with D-luciferin substrate. The results show that the yeast sensor reacts to mycotoxins with typical sigmoidal response at nanomolar concentrations. The response differs in different milk products with regard to the fat content of the milk. Due to short assay time of less than 3h and automation the approach can be used as a bioavailability and activity screening method prior to more detailed chemical analysis.
"After addition of buffered sample, a platinum electrode was employed as reference electrode. Vaelimaa et al. (2010) developed a bioluminescent whole-cell biosensor for the detection of ZEA, α-ZOL, β-ZOL, ZAN, α-ZAL and β-ZAL in milk products. A genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used as detection system. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review highlights developments in mycotoxin analysis and sampling over a period between mid-2009 and mid-2010. It covers the major mycotoxins aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. New and improved methods for mycotoxins continue to be published. Immunological-based method developments continue to be of wide interest in a broad range of formats. Multimycotoxin determination by LC-MS/MS is now being targeted at the specific ranges of mycotoxins and matrices of interest or concern to the individual laboratory. Although falling outside the main emphasis of the review, some aspects of natural occurrence have been mentioned, especially if linked to novel method developments
World Mycotoxin Journal 02/2011; 4(1). DOI:10.3920/WMJ2010.1249 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several filamentous fungi that grow on various food and feed. These compounds elicit a wide spectrum of toxicological effects, representing a health risk for both, humans and animals. Mycotoxin analysis is an important tool in controlling fungal contamination of food and feed. This article reviews the techniques used for their determination, and the advantages and limitations of each method are critically discussed.
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