Effects of a therapeutic lifestyle-change programme on cardiac risk factors after coronary artery bypass graft.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to explore the behavioural and clinical impact of a therapeutic lifestyle-change intervention for cardiac risk factors in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Coronary atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular disease involves a progressive process. Progression of coronary atherosclerosis remains a significant problem after coronary artery intervention, requiring patients to make ongoing modifications in their lifestyle to reduce cardiac risk factors.
A prospective quasi-experimental design was used.
Patients who received coronary artery bypass graft surgery at a medical centre in Taiwan were sampled by convenience and assigned to two groups. The control group (n = 37) and experimental group (n = 36) both received routine postoperative rehabilitation, with the experimental group also receiving the therapeutic lifestyle-change programme. Measures of behavioural and clinical outcomes were compared before surgery, one and three months after discharge.
The results revealed that the amount of cigarette smoking, blood pressure control, frequency of physical activity and dietary behaviour were modified in both groups. Both groups improved significantly in blood lipid profiles and fasting glucose levels from presurgery to the first month after discharge and the experimental group improved even more (p < 0.05). Similar findings were also noted for changes in cigarette smoking and dietary behaviour. Three months after discharge, blood pressure control and frequency of physical activity in the experimental group were significantly higher than in the control group.
Incorporating a therapeutic lifestyle-change intervention into a postoperative cardiac rehabilitation programme effectively modified cardiac risk factors and may improve postoperative recovery and prognosis.
Guidelines for Taiwanese patients with cardiovascular disease should stress and support implementation of and adherence to therapeutic lifestyle changes in addition to drug therapy.