Biofilm on dental implants: a review of the literature.
ABSTRACT The aim of this article was to review the current literature with regard to biofilm formation on dental implants and the influence of surface characteristics (chemistry, surface free energy, and roughness) of dental implant and abutment materials and their design features on biofilm formation and its sequelae.
An electronic MEDLINE literature search was conducted of studies published between 1966 and June 2007. The following search terms were used: biofilm and dental implants, biofilm formation/plaque bacterial adhesion and implants, plaque/biofilm and surface characteristics/roughness/surface free energy of titanium dental implants, implant-abutment interface and plaque/biofilm, biofilm and supragingival/subgingival plaque microbiology, biofilm/plaque and implant infection, antibacterial/bacteriostatic titanium, titanium nanocoating/nanopatterning, antimicrobial drug/titanium implant. Both in vitro and in vivo studies were included in this review.
Fifty-three articles were identified in this review process. The articles were categorized with respect to their context on biofilm formation on teeth and dental implant surfaces and with regard to the influence of surface characteristics of implant biomaterials (especially titanium) and design features of implant and abutment components on biofilm formation. The current state of literature is more descriptive, rather than providing strong data that could be analyzed through meta-analysis. Basic research articles on surface modification of titanium were also included in the review to analyze the applications of such studies on the fabrication of implant surfaces that could possibly decrease early bacterial colonization and biofilm formation.
Increase in surface roughness and surface free energy facilitates biofilm formation on dental implant and abutment surfaces, although this conclusion is derived from largely descriptive literature. Surface chemistry and the design features of the implant-abutment configuration also play a significant role in biofilm formation.
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ABSTRACT: The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in microbiology has progressed significantly throughout the years since its first application as a high-resolution imaging instrument. Modern AFM setups are capable of characterizing the nanomechanical behaviour of bacterial cells at both the cellular and molecular levels, where elastic properties and adhesion forces of single bacterium cells can be examined under different experimental conditions. Considering that bacterial and biofilm-mediated infections continue to challenge the biomedical field, it is important to understand the biophysical events leading towards bacterial adhesion and colonization on both biological and non-biological substrates. The purpose of this review is to present the latest findings concerning the field of single-bacterium nanomechanics, and discuss future trends and applications of nanoindentation and single-cell force spectroscopy techniques in biomedicine.Nanotechnology 01/2015; 26(6):062001. DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/26/6/062001 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives The impact of implant surfaces in dental biofilm development is presently unknown. The aim of this investigation was to assess in vitro the development of a complex biofilm model on titanium and zirconium implant surfaces, and to compare it with the same biofilm formed on hydroxyapatite surface. Methods Six standard reference strains were used to develop an in vitro biofilm over sterile titanium, zirconium and hydroxyapatite discs, coated with saliva within the wells of pre-sterilized polystyrene tissue culture plates. The selected species used represent initial (Streptococcus oralis and Actinomyces naeslundii), early (Veillonella parvula), secondary (Fusobacterium nucleatum) and late colonizers (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans). The developed biofilms (growth time 1 to 120 h) were studied with confocal laser scanning microscopy using a vital fluorescence technique and with low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. The number (colony forming units/biofilm) and kinetics of the bacteria within the biofilm were studied with quantitative PCR (qPCR). As outcome variables, the biofilm thickness, the percentage of cell vitality and the number of bacteria were compared using the analysis of variance. Results The bacteria adhered and matured within the biofilm over the three surfaces with similar dynamics. Different surfaces, however, demonstrated differences both in the thickness, deposition of the extracellular polysaccharide matrix as well as in the organization of the bacterial cells. Significance While the formation and dynamics of an in vitro biofilm model was similar irrespective of the surface of inoculation (hydroxyapatite, titanium or zirconium), there were significant differences in regards to the biofilm thickness and three-dimensional structure.Dental Materials 10/2014; 30(10). DOI:10.1016/j.dental.2014.07.008 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Argon gas cluster ion beam sources are likely to become much more widely available on XPS and SIMS instruments in the next few years. Much attention has been devoted to their ability to depth profile organic materials with minimum damage. What has not been the focus of attention (possibly because it has been very difficult to measure) is the large ratio of sputter yield for organic materials compared with inorganic materials using these sources and the special opportunities this presents for studies of organic/inorganic interfaces. Traditional depth profiling by monatomic argon ions introduces significant damage into the organic overlayer, and because sputter rates in both organic and inorganic are similar for monatomic ions the interface is often ‘blurred’ due to knock-on and other damage mechanisms. We have used a quartz crystal technique to measure the total sputter yield for argon cluster ions in a number of materials important in medical implants, biomaterials and diagnostic devices, including polymethyl methacrylate, collagen, hydroxyapatite, borosilicate glass, soda lime glass, silicon dioxide and the native oxides on titanium and stainless steel. These data fit a simple semi-empirical equation very well, so that the total sputter yield can now be estimated for any of them for the entire range of cluster ion energy typical in XPS or SIMS. On the basis of our total sputter yield measurements, we discuss three useful ‘figures-of-merit’ for choosing the optimum cluster ion energy to use in depth profiling organic/inorganic samples. For highest selectivity in removing the organic but not the inorganic material the energy-per-atom in the cluster should be below 6 eV. A practical balance between selectivity and reasonably rapid depth profiling is achieved by choosing a cluster ion energy having between around 3 and 9 eV energy-per-atom. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Surface and Interface Analysis 12/2013; 45(13). DOI:10.1002/sia.5333 · 1.39 Impact Factor