Screening and quantification of the expression of antibiotic resistance genes in Acinetobacter baumannii with a microarray.

Institut Pasteur, Unité des Agents Antibactériens, 75724 Paris, Cedex 15, France.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 4.45). 11/2009; 54(1):333-40. DOI: 10.1128/AAC.01037-09
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray was developed to evaluate expression of genes for efflux pumps in Acinetobacter baumannii and to detect acquired antibiotic resistance determinants. The microarray contained probes for 205 genes, including those for 47 efflux systems, 55 resistance determinants, and 35 housekeeping genes. The microarray was validated by comparative analysis of mutants overexpressing or deficient in the pumps relative to the parental strain. The performance of the microarray was also evaluated using in vitro single-step mutants obtained on various antibiotics. Overexpression, confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, of RND efflux pumps AdeABC, due to a G30D substitution in AdeS in a multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain obtained on gentamicin, and AdeIJK, in two mutants obtained on cefotaxime or tetracycline, was detected. A new efflux pump, AdeFGH, was found to be overexpressed in a mutant obtained on chloramphenicol. Study of MDR clinical isolates, including the AYE strain, whose entire sequence has been determined, indicated overexpression of AdeABC and of the chromosomally encoded cephalosporinase as well as the presence of several acquired resistance genes. The overexpressed and acquired determinants detected by the microarray could account for nearly the entire MDR phenotype of the isolates. The microarray is potentially useful for detection of resistance in A. baumannii and should allow detection of new efflux systems associated with antibiotic resistance.

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    ABSTRACT: The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria through food has become a major public health concern because some important human pathogens may be transferred via the food chain. Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most life-threatening gram-negative pathogens; multidrug-resistant (MDR) clones of A. baumannii are spreading worldwide, causing outbreaks in hospitals. However, the role of raw meat as a reservoir of A. baumannii remains unexplored. In this study, we describe for the first time the antibiotic susceptibility and fingerprint (repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR [rep-PCR] profile and sequence types [STs]) of A. baumannii strains found in raw meat retailed in Switzerland. Our results indicate that A. baumannii was present in 62 (25.0%) of 248 (CI 95%: 19.7 to 30.9%) meat samples analyzed between November 2012 and May 2013, with those derived from poultry being the most contaminated (48.0% [CI 95%: 37.8 to 58.3%]). Thirty-nine strains were further tested for antibiotic susceptibility and clonality. Strains were frequently not susceptible (intermediate and/or resistant) to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins for human use (i.e., ceftriaxone [65%], cefotaxime [32%], ceftazidime [5%], and cefepime [2.5%]). Resistance to piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, colistin, and tetracycline was sporadically observed (2.5, 2.5, 5, and 5%, respectively), whereas resistance to carbapenems was not found. The strains were genetically very diverse from each other and belonged to 29 different STs, forming 12 singletons and 6 clonal complexes (CCs), of which 3 were new (CC277, CC360, and CC347). RepPCR analysis further distinguished some strains of the same ST. Moreover, some A. baumannii strains from meat belonged to the clonal complexes CC32 and CC79, similar to the MDR isolates responsible for human infections. In conclusion, our findings suggest that raw meat represents a reservoir of MDR A. baumannii and may serve as a vector for the spread of these pathogens into both community and hospital settings.
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    ABSTRACT: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen of increasing importance due to its multiple resistance to antibiotics and ability to survive in the hospital environment linked to its capacity to form biofilms. To fully characterize the contribution of AdeABC, AdeFGH, and AdeIJK resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type efflux systems to acquired and intrinsic resistance, we constructed, from an entirely sequenced susceptible A. baumannii strain, a set of isogenic mutants overexpressing each system following introduction of a point mutation in their cognate regulator or a deletion for the pump by allelic replacement. Pairwise comparison of every derivative with the parental strain indicated that AdeABC and AdeFGH are tightly regulated and contribute to acquisition of antibiotic resistance when overproduced. AdeABC had a broad substrate range, including β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines-tigecycline, macrolides-lincosamides, and chloramphenicol, and conferred clinical resistance to aminoglycosides. Importantly, when combined with enzymatic resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides, this pump contributed in a synergistic fashion to the level of resistance of the host. In contrast, AdeIJK was expressed constitutively and was responsible for intrinsic resistance to the same major drug classes as AdeABC as well as antifolates and fusidic acid. Surprisingly, overproduction of AdeABC and AdeIJK altered bacterial membrane composition, resulting in decreased biofilm formation but not motility. Natural transformation and plasmid transfer were diminished in recipients overproducing AdeABC. It thus appears that alteration in the expression of efflux systems leads to multiple changes in the relationship between the host and its environment, in addition to antibiotic resistance. Increased expression of chromosomal genes for RND-type efflux systems plays a major role in bacterial multidrug resistance. Acinetobacter baumannii has recently emerged as an important human pathogen responsible for epidemics of hospital-acquired infections. Besides its remarkable ability to horizontally acquire resistance determinants, it has a broad intrinsic resistance due to low membrane permeability, endogenous resistance genes, and antibiotic efflux. The study of isogenic mutants from a susceptible A. baumannii clinical isolate overproducing or deleted for each of the three major RND-type pumps demonstrated their major contribution to intrinsic resistance and to the synergism between overproduction of an efflux system and acquisition of a resistance gene. We have also shown that modulation of expression of the structural genes for the efflux systems results in numerous alterations in membrane-associated cellular functions, in particular, in a decrease in biofilm formation and resistance gene acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Yoon et al.
    mBio 01/2015; 6(2). DOI:10.1128/mBio.00309-15 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The amikacin resistance gene aphA6 was first detected in the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii and subsequently in other genera. Analysis of 133 whole-genome sequences covering the taxonomic diversity of Acinetobacter spp. detected aphA6 in the chromosome of 2 isolates of A. guillouiae, which is an environmental species, 1 of 8 A. parvus isolates, and 5 of 34 A. baumannii isolates. The gene was also present in 29 out of 36 A. guillouiae isolates screened by PCR, indicating that it is ancestral to this species. The Pnative promoter for aphA6 in A. guillouiae and A. parvus was replaced in A. baumannii by PaphA6, which was generated by use of the insertion sequence ISAba125, which brought a -35 sequence. Study of promoter strength in Escherichia coli and A. baumannii indicated that PaphA6 was four times more potent than Pnative. There was a good correlation between aminoglycoside MICs and aphA6 transcription in A. guillouiae isolates that remained susceptible to amikacin. The marked topology differences of the phylogenetic trees of aphA6 and of the hosts strongly support its recent direct transfer within Acinetobacter spp. and also to evolutionarily remote bacterial genera. Concomitant expression of aphA6 must have occurred because, contrary to the donors, it can confer resistance to the new hosts. Mobilization and expression of aphA6 via composite transposons and the upstream IS-generating hybrid PaphA6, followed by conjugation, seems the most plausible mechanism. This is in agreement with the observation that, in the recipients, aphA6 is carried by conjugative plasmids and flanked by IS that are common in Acinetobacter spp. Our data indicate that resistance genes can also be found in susceptible environmental bacteria.
    mBio 08/2014; 5(5). DOI:10.1128/mBio.01972-14 · 6.88 Impact Factor

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